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Categories for the Description of Works of Art


4. Creation


DEFINITION

The creation, design, execution, or production of a work of art or architecture and its components, including all those responsible for the creation of the work or items in the group, the dates of that activity, and the place where the creation took place.

SUBCATEGORIES

GENERAL DISCUSSION

The creator and date of creation are core. This category focuses on the action or activity of creation, design, or manufacture. A work of art or architecture may be the product of a number of processes, and the creator responsible for each contribution should be recorded. Information about creation is necessary to identify the work and to distinguish it from other works. Knowing the creators and the date and place of creation provides researchers with crucial understanding of the context and meaning of the work.

Multiple creators and dates
Multiple individuals may be responsible for the creation of a work, and they may have played different roles. Include all pertinent creators. It is important to distinguish the artist or architect primarily responsible for designing or making the work. It is also important to identify those who had secondary roles in making the work, such as master printers, technicians, publishers, or architectural engineers. If two or more artists assumed a joined identity to create a work , their assumed identity should be recorded as creator (e.g., Beggarstaff Brothers). If a work is the joint product of a firm, factory, studio, or company, such as Artimede, the corporate body should be identified as the creator. If there is are multiple dates or a range of dates associated with the creation, indicate this.

Groups of works
For groups, it is important to list all artists who contributed to the creation of the items in the group, and all dates associated with their creation.

Uncertainty
Indicate uncertainty and ambiguity as necessary. Sources may reflect disputes about the attribution or dates for a particular work. When multiple suggestions have been made, the preferred attribution and dates of creation should be the ones accepted by the repository of the work. Other attributions or dates have scholarly interest, however, and should be recorded also.

Unknown creator or unknown date
Values for creator and date must be supplied, even when the information is uncertain. In the CDWA, an unknown creator differs from an anonymous creator. An anonymous creator refers to the situation where the oeuvre and general time and place of activity of the artist have been established, but his or her name is simply unknown (e.g., Master of the Aachen Madonna). An unknown creator refers to a situation where the oeuvre or hand of the artist is not established (e.g., unknown Florentine). When the creator is unknown, include a designation of the culture or geographic place that produced the work rather than a name (e.g., Florentine or unknown Florentine). If the date of creation is unknown, an estimated broad date may be supplied (e.g., 15th century or contemporary).

Sources
Information about the attribution of a work can be derived from a signature or inscription on the object, from published or unpublished expert analysis of the style, or from archival documents. Other information about creation can be found in unpublished documents such as inventories, letters, bills of sale, photo mounts, and repository records, or in published monographs, catalogs, and journal articles. Note that a work may be marked with false signatures or names other than the artist (e.g., the Five-colored Parakeet scroll in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, bears the signature of the emperor Hui Zong, but experts in the field attribute its creation to an anonymous court academician).

Cataloging rules
For the subcategories in this section, basic recommendations and discussion are provided below. For a fuller, more prescriptive set of cataloging rules for some of the subcategories, see Chapter 2: Creator Information and Chapter 4: Stylistic and Chronological Information in Cataloging Cultural Objects (CCO), which deals with a critical subset of the CDWA.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

The subcategories of CREATOR - ROLE and CREATION - CREATION DATE are primary access points. CREATOR - IDENTITY is a primary access point, as well as categories linked to it in the authority, PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY (in the following subcategories in the atuhority NAMES, BIRTH DATE, DEATH DATE, NATIONALITY/CULTURE/RACE, LIFE ROLES). These and other subcategories may be queried individually or in combination with other subcategories in CREATION or in other categories.

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4.1. Creator Description

DEFINITION

The name, brief biographical information, and roles (if necessary) of the named or anonymous individuals or corporate bodies responsible for the design, production, manufacture, or alteration of the work, presented in a syntax suitable for display to the end-user and including any necessary indications of uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance. If there is no known creator, make a reference to the presumed culture or nationality of the unknown creator.

EXAMPLES


- Vincent van Gogh (Dutch painter and draftsman, 1853-1890) [Figure 17]
- Villard de Honnecourt (French draftsman, active ca. 1220-1240)

- Master of the Parlement de Paris (French or Flemish painter, active ca. 1450-ca. 1495) [Figure 20]
- Marco Ricci (Venetian painter, 1676-1730), figures by Sebastiano Ricci (Venetian painter, 1659-1734)
[Figure 19]
- designed by D. A. Alexander (British, 19th century), engraved and published by William Daniell (British, 1769-1837)
- Martin brothers (French japanners, active 18th century)
[Figure 10]
- Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish painter and draftsman, 1577-1640) after original by Titian (Venetian painter and draftsman, ca. 1488-1576)
- potter was Euphronios (Attic, active ca. 520-ca. 470 BCE), painting attributed to Onesimos (Attic, active ca. 500-ca. 475 BCE)

- Jean Fouquet (French painter, born ca. 1415-1420, died before 1481), formerly attributed to unknown 15th-century Italian
- Gobelins (French craftsmen's factory, established in 1662 in Paris, closed in 20th century)
[Figure 25]
- Peter King (English draftsman, 17th-18th centuries), with additions attributed to unknown draftsman in the office of Nicholas Hawksmoor (English architect, 1661-1736)
- attributed to Kicking Bear (Native American chief and painter, ca. 1846-1904)
- office of Christopher Wren
- follower of Lorenzo di Credi
- workshop of Donato Bramante
- copy after Phydias

- unknown 7th-century Mayan
- unknown Roman [Figure 5]
- unknown Yuan Dynasty


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Required: It is required to record the preferred name of the individual, group of individuals, or corporate body responsible for the creation, design, production, manufacture, or alteration of the work. In order to identify the creator unambiguously to the end user, it is recommended to also provide biographical information about each person or group responsible for the creation of the work.

Creators may be named individuals and corporate bodies, or they can be anonymous hands identified as individuals (e.g., Master of the Saint Bartholomew Altar (Dutch, German, or Italian painter and illuminator, active 1480-1510)), or generically by cultural (e.g., unknown Dakota) or national designations (e.g., unknown Benin). Include indications of nuance, uncertainty, and ambiguity as necessary (e.g., probably by Gobelins (French craftsmen's factory, established in 1662 in Paris, closed in 20th century)).

Form and syntax
List information in the following order: Role or a reference to the process (optional, as necessary for clarity; e.g., designer or designed by), the preferred name in natural order, nationality, and birth and death dates (or dates of activity).

Name
Take the name from an authoritative source. Record the most commonly used name, which is not necessarily the fullest name (e.g., Francisco de Goya, not Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes). Use a pseudonym or nickname if that is the commonly preferred name (e.g., Masaccio, not Tommaso di Giovanni di Simone Guidi). Capitalize surnames, initials, forenames, and honorifics. Record the name for a studio, firm, or other group of persons that created the work, if appropriate.

Choose the name most commonly used in the language of the catalog record (English, in the United States), if there is one. If there is no English version of the name (as is usually the case for individuals), use the preferred name in the vernacular language. For the DESCRIPTION, list the name in natural order if possible, even if the source lists the name in inverted form (inverted names are appropriate for indexing, but not for display). Follow additional guidelines in the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY.

Biographical information
After the name, it is recommended to include the nationality (or culture) and birth and death dates (e.g., Venetian, 1676-1730); the creator's life role(s) may also be included (e.g., Venetian painter, 1676-1730). Avoid phrasing the information in a way that could be confusing or ambiguous. Indicate any uncertainty regarding nationality or dates of the creator. Indicate uncertain or ambiguous dates by using qualifiers such as ca. (meaning "circa"), after, before, or by referring to spans of decades or centuries rather than to specific years (e.g., German printmaker, 15th century or French or Flemish painter, active ca. 1450-ca. 1495). If life dates are unknown, list estimated life dates or dates of activity (e.g., French draftsman, active ca. 1220-1240). Include the place of activity (e.g., active in Italy) if nationality is unknown or when the locus of activity is different from the artist's nationality or otherwise pertinent. For an anonymous creator or other creator with incomplete biographical information, include the deduced nationality (or locus of activity) and approximate dates of life or activity.

Multiple creators
If multiple creators were involved in the creation of the work or group of works, record all of them if possible. If there are too many to record them all, record the most important or most prominent creators. If the role of the creator could be unclear or ambiguous to the user - as when the creators contributed differently to the creation of the work - clearly explain roles and extent (e.g., potter was Euphronios (Attic, active ca. 520-ca. 470 BCE), painting attributed to Onesimos (Attic, active ca. 500-ca. 475 BCE)).

The creation of a work of art or architecture can be a complex process. If appropriate, record individuals and corporate bodies even if they are not artists per se. These include all persons or groups of persons who contributed to the production, manufacture, or alteration of the work. For example, the patron of ancient architecture should often be included because it is likely that he contributed directly or indirectly to the design of a work he commissioned. Important publishers of European prints, calligraphers of Chinese paintings, and other non-artists should be included. A work may be the result of a series of activities, each of which was the responsibility of a separate individual or group, as for example, with a print for which a draftsman, etcher, and publisher are known (e.g., designed by D. A. Alexander (British, 19th century), engraved and published by William Daniell (British, 1769-1837)). Furthermore, a work may have been altered repeatedly during its history, as with an African mask that is ritually repainted, or a work of architecture that is created over a long period of time with designs by multiple architects.

Anonymous creators
For anonymous creators, record an appellation and biography that have been established by scholarly research. In the context of the CDWA, an "anonymous creator" is defined as a creator whose hand is identified and oeuvre is established, but whose name is not known (e.g., Master of the Dido Panels). This type of creator is distinguished from unknown creators, discussed below.

Unknown creators
If the identity of a hand and its oeuvre are not established, devise a generic identification to refer to the unknown creator. Unknown creators are common, especially in certain disciplines, including ancient art, Asian art, African art, aboriginal art, folk art, decorative arts, and Western art dating from the sixteenth century and earlier. Do not leave the Creator element blank. If the creator is unknown and the identity of his or her hand is not established, devise a generic identification with which all unattributed works by unknown creators with similar attributes may be associated (e.g., unknown or unknown Italian or unknown Italian 16th-century). Ideally, these appellations should be stored in the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY.

Including the role


Including the life roles of the creator is optional (life roles are the most important professional roles that the creator held during his lifetime). However, you should clarify the specific role of the creator regarding the work if it will not be immediately apparent to the end user (e.g., architect: Willoughby J. Edbrooke (American, 1843-1896); draftsman: Chauncey G. Graham (American, active 1890s).

Including extent or qualifier
Record the extent, that is the part of a work contributed by a particular creator, if necessary for clarity (e.g., design, execution, predella, main panel, figures) (e.g., Marco Ricci (Venetian painter, 1676-1730), figures by Sebastiano Ricci (Venetian painter, 1659-1734)). Record an attribution qualifer when the attribution is uncertain, is in dispute, or when there is a former attribution; clarify the attribution with a qualifier using the terminology as defined in QUALIFIER below (e.g., attributed to, after, probably by, school of) (e.g., attributed to Kicking Bear (Native American chief and painter, ca. 1846-1904)).

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free text: This is not a controlled field; however, the use of consistent names and biographical information is strongly recommended. It is required to index the creator in the CREATOR - IDENTITY and other subcategories described below.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

Index the creator and role; index extent and qualifier as necessary. Given that creator is a primary access point, you must index it in the CREATOR - IDENTITY subcategory, which in turn should ideally be linked to the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY. The information provided in this subcategory may be uncertain or open to various interpretations; when the authorship of a work is in dispute, all plausible attributions should be indexed for retrieval, even if they are not all displayed in DESCRIPTION.

Creator information should be accessible in combination with the authority information to allow queries such as "find all works that are portraits on panel painted by Holbein in England" or "all Inuit carvings made in the nineteenth century and now located in Seattle, Washington."

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4.1.1. Creator Extent

DEFINITION

The part of a work contributed by a particular creator.

EXAMPLES


design
predella
execution
with additions by
figures
sculpture
embroidery
engraved by
printed by
cast by


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a term indicating extent. Use lower case.

It is optional to index EXTENT (although it is required to state the extent in the DESCRIPTION subcategory, when pertinent). When more than one artist or architect contributed to the creation of a single work, it is recommended to use EXTENT to index the part each artist or architect played.

For example, individual artists may be responsible for the design, decoration, marquetry, bronze mounts (design, casting, gilding), and porcelain plaques for a piece of furniture (e.g., for the late eighteenth-century Secrétaire by Martin Carlin in the Getty Museum[1]). A single painting may be the work of more than one artist, as when both Marco and Sebastiano Ricci painted Landscape with Classical Ruins and Figures [Figure 19]; Sebastiano was responsible for the figures and Marco for the monuments and landscape.[2] One architect may be responsible for designing the body of a basilica, while another architect designed the dome many years later. Note that scholars may have differing opinions about which artists executed which portions of a work of art, as is the case with Herbert and Jan van Eyck's collaboration on the Ghent altarpiece. Uncertainty should be noted in the CREATOR - DESCRIPTION or more fully explained in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Control this subcategory with a controlled list, using terminology of the type suggested in the Examples above. Other terminology could be based on vocabulary in the following sources: AAT Objects facet, the Base Mérimée: Lexique, ACRL/RBMS Binding Terms, ACRL/RBMS Genre Terms, ACRL/RBMS Paper Terms, ACRL/RBMS Printing and Publishing Evidence, the British Archaeological Thesaurus, the Glass' Subject Index for the Visual Arts, the Index of Jewish Art, ISO 5127-3: Iconic Documents, ISO 5127-11: Audio-visual Documents, LC Descriptive Terms for Graphic Materials, Moving Image Materials, Reyniès' Le Mobilier Domestique, Tozzer Library Headings, or ICOM Costume Terms.

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4.1.2. Creator Qualifier

DEFINITION

An expression of the certainty with which a work can be attributed to a known artist or group, used when the attribution is uncertain, is in dispute, when there is more than one creator, when there is a former attribution, or when the attribution otherwise requires explanation.

EXAMPLES


attributed to
assistant to
workshop of
studio of
atelier of
office of
pupil of
associate of
follower of
school of
circle of
copyist of
style of


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a term indicating attribution. Use lower case.

It is optional, but recommended, to index the attribution to a given creator when it has been noted in the DESCRIPTION. There are several qualifiers that are traditionally used in the discipline of art history, and each carries its own tradition of usage in particular situations. Definitions can vary slightly from institution to institution. Use the qualifiers below, and others, if necessary. Apply them in compliance with the way the particular attribution is expressed by the repository and scholars, or according to the following definitions when necessary:

No attribution qualifier
Using no attribution qualifier indicates that the repository and most or all scholars believe that the attribution to the named artist is certain. The same holds true for unknown artists who are identified by culture or nationality (e.g., unknown Celtic); if there is no attribution qualifier, the attribution to this culture is deemed secure.

Attributions to a known creator
Use one of the following qualifiers to express uncertainty when the attribution of a work to a known creator or architect is in question or to note a former attribution. The following may also be used for attributions to unknown artists (e.g., attributed to unknown Celtic).


attributed to: Use to express minor to moderate uncertainty regarding the attribution to a known artist, architect, or corporate body, as when the work's provenance, style, or physical characteristics strongly suggest a given creator, but the attribution cannot be validated with absolute certainty (e.g., attributed to Frans Hals (Dutch painter, ca. 1581-1666)).

formerly attributed to: Use to refer to an attribution that had been accepted in the past, but is no longer generally held to be valid (e.g., formerly attributed to Yan Wengui (Chinese, active ca. 970-1030)).

probably by: Use to express minor uncertainty regarding the attribution, generally indicating a slightly stronger probability than attributed to.

possibly by: Use to express significant uncertainty regarding attribution, indicating notably greater uncertainty than attributed to.


Unknown creators linked to a known creator
If the identity of a creator is unknown but he or she has worked closely with a known creator on the work, use an attribution qualifier to associate the work with the name of a known creator whose oeuvre is stylistically similar or otherwise related to the work at hand. In such cases, link to the known creator in the CREATOR - IDENTITY, but qualify the known creator's name with one of the qualifiers as described below.

Note: Do not use these qualifiers when the name of the creator of the object/work being cataloged is known or when an anonymous appellation is used for its creator (i.e., anonymous creators are those whose hand and oeuvre are known, but whose name alone is unknown, e.g., Master of the Caslav Panel). When named or anonymous creators (as opposed to unknown creators) have relationships to other artists, these relationships should be expressed in the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY, not here in the Object/Work record. For example, the Isaac Master worked in the workshop of Giotto. This working relationship surrounding the workshop should be recorded in the authority record for Giotto and the Isaac Master, NOT in work records by these creators.


Working directly with a known creator
Use one of the following qualifiers to indicate authorship by an unknown individual working directly for the named master, probably under his or her supervision. The distinction between workshop, studio, office, and atelier typically depends upon the historical period in question and the type of work being produced.


workshop of: Use for a work by an unknown artist or architect working under a master's name, generally in a system of apprenticeship common from ancient times through the mid-17th century (workshop of Gislebertus).

studio of: Use for a work by an unknown artist working for a named artist in a system common after the 16th century, when master artists took on pupils who were learning to be artists rather than apprentices who were learning a trade.

office of: Use for a work by an unknown architect working for a named architect in the 18th century through the present, when the group of people working for the architect calls itself an office (e.g., office of ChristopherWren).

atelier of: Use for a work by an unknown artist working for a named studio that called itself an atelier, generally reserved for those studios located in France, or in Britain after the 18th century.

assistant to: Use for a work by an unknown artist or architect working as an assistant to a named artist or architect whose staff is relatively small in number and do not call themselves a studio or an office. Also use for an assistant who worked in a studio or office, but in a special, close relationship to the named artist or architect.

pupil of: Use for a work by an unknown artist working under a named artist, where the relationship is apparently close, probably a student/teacher relationship; implies the unknown artist is probably younger or less experienced than the named artist; synonymous with student of.

associate of: Use for a work by an unknown artist working with a named artist, where the relationship is between two peers rather than between a student and teacher.

manufactory of: Use for a work by an unknown artist working for a named manufactory or factory, which is typically larger than a studio or workshop, and typically produces porcelain, tapestries, furniture, and occasionally fine art.


Not working directly with a known creator
Use one of the following qualifiers to refer to an unknown artist in direct contact with the works of the named creator, and living at the same time or shortly after him or her, though not actually working in his or her studio:


follower of: Use for a work by an unknown artist or architect whose style is strongly influenced by the named artist or architect, and who is living at the same time as or shortly after the named artist, but is not necessarily his or her pupil (e.g., follower of Hokusai).

circle of: Use for a work by an unknown artist who appears to be associated with the named artist, he or she is living at the same time as the named artist, and probably had some contact with him or her, but not is necessarily his or her pupil.

school of: Use for a work by an artist or architect whose style is influenced by the named artist or architect or by the associates of the named artist, who is living at the same time or shortly after the named artist, but is not known to be a pupil or direct follower of the named artist (e.g., school of Rembrandt).


Influenced by a known creator
Use one of the following qualifiers to indicate an influence of (or an outright copy of) the style of the named master, but with the connotation that the named creator had little or nothing to do with the actual work at hand. The unknown creator need not necessarily be a contemporary of the named master (e.g., style of Raphael or copyist of Rodin):


style of: Use for a work by an unknown artist whose style is strongly under the influence of the style of the named master (e.g., style of Raphael).

after: Use for a work by an unknown artist who has created a copy of a known work of the named artist.

copyist of: Use for a work by an unknown artist whose style seems to be a deliberate copy of the style of the named artist, but when the work at hand is not a direct copy of a known work by the named artist (e.g., copyist of Rodin).

manner of: Use for a work by an unknown artist whose style or elements of whose style are somewhat close to the style of the named artist, but whose work does not seem to be a deliberate copy of the named artist, and who generally lived in a period after the named artist.


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Control this subcategory with a controlled list, using terminology in the Examples above and others, as required.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

QUALIFIER should not be used to record the contribution of a corporate creator whose name happens to include such words as "Office of" (e.g., Office of Public Buildings and Grounds). As mentioned above, QUALIFIER likewise should not be used to record the relationship between an identified, named artist and his workshop, office, or a stylistic "school." If the creator is identified, but activities surrounding the creation of the work also directly involved the office or workshop of another identified artist, the office or workshop should be listed as a separate occurrence of the CREATOR group of subcategories, with the nature of the activity of the office or workshop recorded in ROLE. Examples would include a panel painted by Andrea di Bartolo while in the workshop of his father, Bartolo di Fredi, and a drawing made by John H. Howe while he was in the architectural firm of Frank Lloyd Wright. Relationships between artists and workshops that do not directly pertain to the work at hand would be recorded in the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY, rather than with information about the art work. The concept of "school" in its stylistic sense should be noted in STYLES/PERIODS/GROUPS/MOVEMENTS; school in its regional sense should be recorded in CREATION - PLACE.

Syntax of phrases describing qualified relationships may vary in the way they are combined with the CREATION - CREATOR - IDENTITY, CREATION - CREATOR - ROLE, and CREATION - CREATOR - EXTENT, particularly when this in turn must be combined with statements for multiple creators. Furthermore, more than one qualifier may be necessary to describe a relationship (e.g., attributed to pupil of Theophanes the Greek contains two qualifiers, attributed to and pupil of). See comments under ACCESS for CREATION - CREATOR.

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4.1.3. Creator Identity

DEFINITION

The identity of any one individual or corporate body that played a role in the creation of a work of art or architecture, ideally a link to the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY. For unknown artists, it is an expression indicating the culture, nationality, or stylistic association of the creator, also ideally linked to the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY.

EXAMPLES


- Wren, Christopher
- Gogh, Vincent van
- Bartolo di Fredi
- Feature Animation, Disney Studios, Walt Disney Company
- New Artists' Society
- Sèvres, Manufacture royale de porcelaine de
- Master of the Dido Panels
- Achilles Painter
- Borden Limner
- unknown Maya
- unknown Santee Dakota
- unknown 16th-century Venetian
- unknown South Italian
- unknown, Gupta period


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Required: Record the name of the creator of the work. This subcategory indexes the DESCRIPTION category; repeat it for every creator in the DESCRIPTION for the work at hand.

Ideally, this should be a link to the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY, where a full record containing the creator's variant names and biographical information will be stored and available for retrieval. See the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY for guidelines in constructing personal names.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Control this subcategory with the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY, which can be populated with names from the ULAN, Canadiana Authorities, LC Name Authorities, and Yale British Artists. Consult AACR for general guidelines regarding the formatting of names.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

The characteristics of creators, particularly their names, dates, places of activity, and national and cultural associations, are primary tools that researchers use to locate corpora for further study, and they must be accessible through the authority. That is, all subcategories recording the artists' names and biographical information may be stored in an authority file; CREATOR IDENTIFICATION. The subcategories that define the identity of the creator are primary access points. Subcategories in the authority should be accessible in combination with other subcategories that pertain strictly to the work. A researcher may wish to identify all works of a particular type created by a named artist, such as all monotypes by Degas where the subject is dancers, or all works that are the product of a particular culture during a particular time period, such as "all carvings dating from 950 to 1000 CE where the creator is Mayan."

Corporate bodies may have hierarchical administrative structures, and this may be important for access and should be accommodated in the authority CREATOR IDENTIFICATION. For example, works may be created by Feature Animation , which is a part of Disney Studios, which in turn is part of Walt Disney Company. Also, corporate bodies and other groups of individuals may be related to single individuals, as a workshop or architectural firm should be related to its members. Groups of individuals or corporate bodies may be related (non-hierarchically) to other corporate bodies; for example, the architectural firm Adler and Sullivan succeeded Dankmar Adler and Company. Likewise, single individuals may be related to other single individuals, as a master is related to a student, or a father is related to a daughter. All such relationships should be accommodated in the authority.

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4.1.4. Creator Role

DEFINITION

The role or activity performed by a creator or maker in the conception, design, or production of a work.

EXAMPLES


artist
painter
designer
draftsman
engraver
muralist
potter
modeller
sculptor
goldsmith
publisher
architectural firm


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Required: Record a term or terms referring to the role or activity performed by the creator named in IDENTITY in the conception, design, or production of the work being cataloged. This subcategory is distinguished from Life Roles in the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHOIRTY in that Life Roles include all of the different roles that a creator may have performed over a lifetime.

Specificity
Distinguishing the specific role played by the artist or architect is critical, particularly when multiple individuals or corporate bodies participated in the creation of the work. Record the most specific role of the creator, if known. The level of specificity may vary depending upon the type of work. For example, the role of the artist who designed and executed a sculpture may be simply sculptor, but a print may have been created by multiple individuals whose specific roles are listed, including a designer, engraver, and publisher. If a specific role is not known, use a more general role. For example if you do not know that a creator performed the specific role of menuisier (which is a type of joiner), list a more general role, such as furniture worker. If even this more general role is not known, use the most general role applicable, such as artist.

Form and syntax
Record the singular form of the term for one creator; record a plural term if more than one creator is represented by the name (e.g., photographers for a group photographers). Record the term in lower case except where the term includes a proper noun or is otherwise capitalized in the source controlled vocabulary. Avoid abbreviations. Record terms in natural word order, not inverted. Do not use punctuation, except hyphens, as required.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Control this subcategory with the GENERIC CONCEPT AUTHORITY, which can be populated with terminology from the Agents facet of the AAT.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

The ROLE of the creator in the work of art at hand is a primary access point. ROLE allows the researcher to locate all instances when an artist acted in one capacity as compared to another. For example, a researcher may want to locate all works for which Rembrandt acted as etcher as distinct from all instances when he was a painter.

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4.1.5. Creator Statement

DEFINITION

Opinions offered by the artist or creator of a work that interpret and provide further information about the work of art and the process of its creation.

EXAMPLES



Studies after the Antique

Painted in Autumn, 1892, from Sentinel Meadow, facing the Falls


Galle stated in a document from 1820 that he included the glass bowl at the bottom of the chandelier for small gold fish, whose continuous movement would be pleasing to the eye ("le mouvement continu récrée l'oeil agréablement") [Figure 4]. [3]

"My video is not:
- Accompanied by a 'pink sludge' rock and roll soundtrack.
- Documentation of a conceptual performance in which I jump out of a 13th story window to test the laws of chance.
- Synthetic images created with rebuilt surplus World War I airplane parts.
- Shot with two cameras attached under each armpit and one between my legs.
- A group therapy encounter between the Neo-Nazi Anarchists and the Bowery Satanists.
- An underground sex-opera starring all my beautiful friends.
- A presentation about the 3rd coming of the Punjab of Mysore to bless his freebies in America.
- Product with future marketing potential."
[4]

...[Kertész] described for a friend the shaping of this particular composition: "The door to [Mondrian's] staircase was always shut, but as I opened it in my mind's eye the two sights started to present themselves as two halves of an interesting image that I thought should be unified. I left the door open, but to get what I wanted I had to move a sofa" [Figure 12]. [5]


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record statements made about a work of art or architecture by its creator that may provide insight into the choice of materials and techniques used to create the work, its subject matter, the evolution of style as represented in the work, and the interpretive or emotional framework within which the artist wishes the work to be viewed.

Form and syntax
The exact words of the artist should be recorded where possible. Use rules for writing notes in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE category.

Recording the artist's statement ensures that the artist's voice is heard when his or her work is studied. Artists' statements are often made in conjunction with the exhibition of contemporary works of art. When and where a statement was made, and the vehicle chosen to communicate it, will add importance to or aid in the interpretation of an artist's statement.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free text: This is not a controlled field. If there is important information in CREATOR - STATEMENT, such as date, materials, etc., index this information in the pertinent controlled subcategory eleswhere in the record.

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4.2. Creation Date

DEFINITION

A concise description of the date or range of dates associated with the creation, design, production, presentation, performance, construction, or alteration of the work or its components, presented in a syntax suitable for display to the end-user and including any necessary indications of uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance.

EXAMPLES


- 1889 [Figure 17]
- 1766-1782
- 12 December 1991
- Christmas 1472
- before 952 BCE
- 1940-1949
- ca. 1537
[Figure 8]
- late 4th century BCE
- 17th century
-
designed 1911, executed 1942-1948
- reign of Rameses II
- An II de la Republique (1794)
- illuminated 2nd quarter of 11th century, binding probably dates from 12th century
[Figure 31]


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Required: Record a year, a span of years, or a phrase that describes the specific or approximate date associated with the creation, design, production, presentation, performance, construction, or alteration of the work or its components. Include nuance and expressions of uncertainty, as necessary.

When the exact date of the creation of a work unknown or uncertain, record an expression of approximate dates, whether a period of a few years or a broad period. For example, the display CREATION DATE created 1859/1862 expresses that Eugéne Cavelier created the print View of Fountainbleau Forest in the Mist [6] sometime during those years. Dates can be qualified with terms like ca., about, before, or after (e.g., after 1611 or ca. 830 BCE).Expressions such as late Mayan, Medieval, papacy of Leo X, first half 16th century, or 5th-4th centuries BCE would describe broader ranges of approximate dates.

Specificity
Record the date with the greatest level of specificity known, but expressed in a way that conveys the correct level of uncertainty or ambiguity to the end user (e.g., ca. 1820). See also Uncertainty below.

Record the year of completion, if known (it is relatively rare that a work will be begun and completed in one sitting, such as a painting en plein air). Dates inscribed by artists on paintings or sculptures generally are the date of completion.

Alternatively, for works such as architecture that are created over a period of time, record the span of time during which the work was constructed.

The date will be assumed to be the year of completion or a span indicating the period of creation or construction. If the date expressed is not the year of completion or a span of time during which creation took place, or if the date may otherwise may be ambiguous, explain it. For example, the dates for Lorenzo Ghiberti's bronze doors for the Baptistery in Florence may be expressed as the following: completed 1403-1424, after winning the design competition in 1401.[7]


Multiple dates: When it is known that different activities in the creative process took place at different times, indicate this. Indicate when the date of design and production are separated by a period of time (e.g., negative: 1875, print: 1904 or designed 1743, cast 1751). Explain when a work has been revised (e.g., for a sculpture: 1372, reworked 1377-1379). Indicate when a manuscript has been illuminated during one period and bound in another [Figure 31]. Note that dates on prints are often the date when the plate was completed (which is typically inscribed on the plate), not the date when the print was pulled. Dates of a photographic negative and the prints made from it can differ widely (e.g., negatives, such as those of Ansel Adams, are often reprinted, expressed as the following: printed in 1983 from a negative dating ca. 1960).

Performance art and installations: Performance art or happenings may require a date more specific than the year; they may have taken place on a specific day and time of day. Ephemeral street art or installations, may have a finite range of dates associated with their existence (e.g., installed 12 November 1978-31 January 1979).

Architecture: Architecture is typically created over a span of years and may include the date of design and the span of time required for construction (e.g., designed late 14th century, constructed 1410-1486). Indicate when architectural structures have been created in multiple building campaigns during different periods of time. Note that dates recorded in documents associated with architecture could be either the date of the laying of the cornerstone or the date the structure was dedicated.

Albums and groups: Albums of works may contain works with multiple dates (e.g., for an album of drawings, drawings date ca. 1550-1777, compiled 1789-1796, rebound with additions 1891).Groups of works commonly contain items created over a period of time. For the group, record a) the inclusive, b) the bulk dates, and/or c) the coverage dates. Inclusive dates (also called span dates) are the years of the earliest and latest dated works in the group (e.g., for a folder of drawings, 1911-1951 (inclusive dates)). Bulk dates are the years representing the earliest and latest dates for the most important or principal body of items in the group. There may be multiple sets of bulk dates for any group (e.g., 1914-1918 and 1939-1945 (bulk dates)). Coverage dates are the date range for the subjects contained in the archival materials, particularly when the subjects do not correspond to the dates when the group or series was created. For example, a series created in the 1970s about the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor would have a coverage date of 1941 and inclusive dates of 1970-1979 (e.g., 1941 (coverage), 1970-1979 (inclusive dates)). Indicate in CREATION DATE if the dates are inclusive, coverage, or bulk dates (index it in QUALIFIER).


Form and syntax
If a specific date is known, record the year. If a span of dates is applicable (as when a work was completed over several years), record the year beginning the span, dash, and the year ending the span.

Use natural word order. Do not capitalize words other than proper nouns or period names. Avoid abbreviations, except with ca. (for "circa"), the numbers in century or dynasty designations (e.g., 17th century), and BCE and CE. Include all digits for both years in a span; for example, with four-digit years, do not abbreviate the second year (e.g., record 1780-1795, NOT 1780-95).

Use ordinal numbers (e.g., 17th) and Arabic numbers (e.g., 1959), as appropriate.

Express words and phrases in the language of the catalog record (English in the United States), except in rare cases where no English-language equivalent exists or where the foreign term is most commonly used (e.g., with the name of a period). Use diacritics as required.

Calendar
Use the proleptic Gregorian calendar (the calendar produced by extending the Gregorian calendar to dates preceding its official introduction). If dates are expressed according to systems other than the Gregorian calendar (such as Julian, Napoleonic, or Islamic calendars), this fact should be clearly designated (e.g., 1088 AH (1677 CE) notes the year in the Islamic calendar with the year in the Gregorian calendar (Common Era) in parentheses).[8]

BCE, CE, Before Present
Use BCE (Before Common Era) to indicate dates before the year 1 in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. For dates after the year 1, generally do not include the designation CE (Current Era), except where confusion may occur because a) the span of dates begins BCE and ends CE (e.g., 75 BCE-10 CE) or b) the date is within the first few centuries of the Current Era. Do not use BC (Before Christ) or AD (Anno Domini). For very ancient works, artifacts, and in certain other disciplines where BCE is not appropriate (e.g., in Precolumbian studies), use the phrases years ago or before present to reflect your source's indication of age relative to the present rather than an absolute date. Do not abbreviate these designations (e.g., do not use y.a. or B.P.).

Uncertainty
If the specific year or span is not known, use modifiers to record dates with the greatest accuracy known (e.g., probably 1514 or ca. 1735). In the guidelines below, the conventions are arranged from greatest level of accuracy to the least; use the greatest possible level of accuracy, based on the information at hand.


probably: If there is doubt among scholars regarding the date of a work, indicate this by using the word probably or a question mark.

or: If the date of a work is known to be one particular year or another, indicate this by using the word or (e.g., 1876 or 1886).

ca.: If the precise date is unknown, preface the year with ca. (for "circa") or about (e.g., ca. 830 BCE). If ca. is used with a span of dates, repeat it as necessary to indicate whether it applies to the beginning year, the ending year, or both years of the span (e.g., ca. 1815-ca. 1825). Preface centuries or other broad dates with ca. as needed (e.g., ca. early 1st century CE).

about: For very ancient works, use the word about rather than ca. (e.g., about <x> years ago or about <x> years before present, etc.).

before, after: When an exact date is unknown, express dates relative to a terminus ante quem or a terminus post quem (meaning date before which and date after which), if appropriate, using the words before or after (e.g., after 1611).

spans: When an exact date is unknown, record the span of years during which the creation took place, if appropriate. Distinguish between a) the span indicating that a precise date is unknown, but the work was created at some point during the span (e.g., 1735/1745), and b) the span that is known, during which the creation process took place over a number of years, as with architecture (e.g., constructed ca. 1435 - ca. 1560). When necessary to avoid ambiguity, clearly describe the meaning of the date.

Dash vs. forward slash: A dash or forward slash may be used in the following ways, provided it will be clear to the user what is meant. Use the dash to indicate a span during which a work was made, as when a building was constructed over several years (e.g., ca. 1435 - ca. 1560 means that construction took many years, from ca. 1435 to ca. 1560). Use the forward slash (meaning "between") when a specific date is not known, to indicate a span that contains some year or years when the work was made (e.g., for a bowl, the date 1735/1745 means the precise date is uncertain, but creation occurred sometime between 1735 and 1745).

decades, centuries: When the exact date is unknown, indicate the date to the nearest decade or century, when appropriate. Do not use an apostrophe with decades (e.g., 1890s, NOT 1890's). Qualify decades or centuries with early, mid-, and late, as warranted.

period, era: If no more precise date is known, you may express dates according to a named period, dynasty, or ruler's reign, if appropriate (e.g., late East Gravettian). The periods may be divided into early, middle, or late. EARLIEST and LATEST DATES for retrieval (discussed below) should be based on dates applicable for that period, if no more specific date for the work is known. In some cases, the period named in CREATION DATE may be the same as the period recorded in STYLE or CULTURE. If you include the years of the period or era in the display CREATION DATE, put the years in parentheses, to distinguish them from dates for the actual object (e.g., Ming (1368-1644) indicates that the Ming dynasty existed between those dates); if you have a closer approximation of date for the object, include that date instead (e.g., CREATION DATE = ca. 1610, instead of CREATION DATE = Ming (1368-1644)), and record Ming as the STYLE.

contemporary: If no more precise date is known for a contemporary work, other than that the artist is still or has recently been active, for CREATION DATE record contemporary rather than 21st century.

no date: Do not use n.d. (for "no date"). Do not leave the date fields blank. If a date is uncertain, determine a possible date range based on available information, including the dates of other art works, associated historical events, or the birth and death dates of the artist (e.g., unless the work was completed after his or her death, the death date of the artist would be the terminus ante quem for the work he or she created).


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax where possible. Index the dates in the controlled EARLIEST and LATEST DATE subcategories.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

The indexing fields, EARLIEST DATE and LATEST DATE, should indicate the broadest span relevant for the free-text CREATION DATE (e.g., for CREATION DATE = ca. 1820, EARLIEST = 1815, LATEST = 1825; EARLIEST DATE and LATEST DATEshould not be visible to the end user, but should be employed only for retrieval). DATE QUALIFIER may be used to index which for part of the work the CREATION DATE applies. For groups, an indication of whether the dates represent bulk, coverage, or inclusive dates may be indexed with the DATE QUALIFIER subcategory.

Researchers need to search for works created in a certain year, such as 1716; they also need to search for all works created on any date within a range of years, such as between 1550 and 1600. Ranges of dates implied by descriptive phrases, such as 8th century, reign of George III, or before 1273 BCE, must be accessible, i.e., through EARLIEST and LATEST DATES.

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4.2.1. Earliest Date

DEFINITION

The earliest possible date when the work of art or architecture was created. For works that were created over a span of time, this is the year when the work was designed or when execution was begun. For uncertain or approximate dates, this is the earliest possible year when the work could have been begun or designed.

EXAMPLES


1205
-0970
1600


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Required: Record the earliest year indicated by the display CREATION DATE.

Form and syntax
Record years in the EARLIEST and LATEST DATES fields without commas or other punctuation, except for the dash/hyphen, which is used to express negative numbers for dates BCE. Use four digits for most years. Dates BCE may require more than four digits (e.g., -10000).

Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. Note that EARLIEST and LATEST DATES record the estimated span of time during which the creation of the work took place.For individual works, EARLIEST DATE should be the earliest possible year that creation of the work could have been begun. For groups, it should be the earliest year in the span indicated in CREATION - CREATION DATE.

End users do not see the EARLIEST and LATEST DATES, thus you may estimate in these fields. Do not estimate the display CREATION DATE except when you have warrant in authoritative sources.

Estimating dates
For uncertain dates of creation, the EARLIEST and LATEST DATES should be estimated broadly using available information about the work or the artist. For example, you could estimate that the earliest possible date for any work by a given artist is eighteen or twenty years after the artist's birth.

Where more specific dating information cannot be derived from the work itself or the artist's life, conventions may be established to ensure consistency, for example, a display date of ca. 1410 may be indexed by subtracting five years for retrieval in EARLIEST DATE and adding five years for LATEST DATE (i.e., EARLIEST DATE = 1405, LATEST DATE = 1415). The date first half 16th century could be indexed with EARLIEST = 1500 and LATEST = 1550. Dates represented as broad historical periods, such as Medieval, could be indexed with years representing the broadest span applicable for that period. If there is great uncertainty, an estimate could be made to the nearest century or span of 100 years, indexing EARLIEST DATE and LATEST DATE as the beginning and end of the 100-year span (e.g., 15th century would be indexed as EARLIEST = 1400, LATEST = 1499). For a CREATION — CREATION DATE that is a single year, both EARLIEST DATE and LATEST DATE should be the same year (e.g., for a painting created in 1674, EARLIEST = 1674, and LATEST = 1674).

Tips for estimating dates
In all cases, adapt or abandon the following recommendations to allow an appropriately greater or lesser span if it is supported by more specific available information.


single year: Where a single exact year is known, record the same year in both EARLIEST and LATEST DATES (e.g., CREATION DATE = 1967, EARLIEST = 1967, LATEST = 1967).

span of years: Where an exact span is known, use the beginning and end dates of the span for EARLIEST and LATEST DATES(e.g., CREATION DATE = 1874-1893, EARLIEST = 1874, LATEST = 1893; or CREATION DATE = 1744/1748, EARLIEST = 1744, LATEST = 1748).

BCE: Record dates BCE as negative numbers (e.g., CREATION DATE = 333/331 BCE, EARLIEST = -333, LATEST -331).

or: Where a date is one year or another, given that the two possible dates will probably be very close to each other, record the two dates as EARLIEST and LATEST DATES (e.g., CREATION DATE = 1978 or 1981, EARLIEST = 1978, LATEST = 1981). If extremely accurate retrieval is required, EARLIEST and LATEST DATEScould be repeated (e.g., CREATION DATE = 1978 or 1981; EARLIEST = 1978, LATEST = 1978| EARLIEST = 1981, LATEST = 1981). See also multiple dates below.

ca.: For circa (ca.), for works produced within the last few centuries, use a 10-year span for EARLIEST and LATEST DATES (e.g., subtract five years from EARLIEST and add five years to LATEST to create a 10-year span, thus CREATION DATE = ca. 1860 could be indexed EARLIEST = 1855, LATEST = 1865). For ancient works, use a one-hundred year span (e.g., CREATION DATE = ca. 1200 BCE could be indexed EARLIEST = -1250, LATEST = -1150); alter this formula as necessary as warranted by more specific available information.

before and after: Estimate EARLIEST and LATEST DATES based on available information; allow a ten-year span if nothing else is known (e.g., for CREATION DATE = after 1743, EARLIEST = 1743, LATEST = 1753, or CREATION DATE = before 1410, EARLIEST = 1400, LATEST = 1410,).

centuries, decades: Begin a century with "00," end it with "99" (e.g., CREATION DATE = 16th century, EARLIEST = 1500, LATEST = 1599). Begin a decade with "0," end it with "9" (e.g., CREATION DATE = 1950s, EARLIEST = 1950, LATEST = 1959).

early, mid-, late: Assign appropriate EARLIEST and LATEST DATES by dividing the decade or century into thirds, unless this formula is contradicted by available information: early = "00" to "29," mid- = "30" to "69," late = "70" to "99" (e.g., CREATION DATE = late 18th century, EARLIEST = 1770, LATEST = 1799, or CREATION DATE = early 16th century, EARIEST DATE = 1500 and LATEST DATE = 1529).

probably: Index with EARLIEST and LATEST DATES representing an appropriate span based on available information, perhaps a year or two to either side of the date (e.g., depending upon available information, CREATION DATE = probably 1937 may be indexed as EARLIEST = 1936, LATEST = 1938).

period, era: If the CREATION DATE refers to a period, era, or reign of a ruler, you may use the beginning and end dates of the period, era, or reign as EARLIEST and LATEST DATES, if no closer approximation of dates can be devised for the object itself (e.g., CREATION DATE = reign of Shah Jahan (1628-1657), EARLIEST = 1628, LATEST = 1657).

contemporary: If the work is contemporary and no more precise date is known, estimate an EARLIEST DATE based on the artist's estimated birth date plus 18 years, and use the current year as the LATEST DATE (e.g., CREATION DATE = contemporary, EARLIEST = 1976, LATEST = 2005).

multiple dates: If there are multiple dates associated with a work, for EARLIEST and LATEST DATESeither a) record the span represented by total span implied in CREATION DATE (e.g., CREATION DATE = 1372, reworked 1377-1379, EARLIEST = 1372, LATEST = 1379), or b) repeat EARLIEST and LATEST DATESwith a QUALIFIER to more precisely record the dates (e.g., CREATION DATE = designed 1482, executed 1532-1534; DATE QUALIFIER = design, EARLIEST = 1482, LATEST = 1482 | DATE QUALIFIER = execution, EARLIEST = 1532, LATEST = 1534).


TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

The dates that delimit the creation of the work are core for retrieval; therefore, EARLIEST DATE and LATEST DATE are primary access points that .should be accessible in combination with CREATOR and other information about the work. Searches on dates may be for exact dates or for ranges of dates.

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4.2.2. Latest Date

DEFINITION

The latest possible date when the work of art or architecture was created. For works that were created over a span of time, this is the year when the work was completed or when the structure was dedicated. For uncertain or approximate dates, this is the latest possible year when the work could have been completed.

EXAMPLES


1215
-0952
1699


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Required: Record the earliest year indicated by the display CREATION DATE.

Form and syntax
Record years in the EARLIEST and LATEST DATES fields without commas or other punctuation, except for the dash/hyphen, which is used to express negative numbers for dates BCE. Use four digits for most years. Dates BCE may require more than four digits (e.g., -10000).

Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. Note that EARLIEST and LATEST DATES record the estimated span of time during which the creation of the work took place.For individual works, LATEST DATE should be the latest possible year that creation of the work could have been completed. For groups, it should be the latest year in the span indicated in CREATION - CREATION DATE.

For uncertain dates of creation, the LATEST DATE should be estimated broadly using available information about the work or the artist. For example, you could estimate that the latest possible date for any work by a given artist is his death date.

For additional guidelines and tips for estimating LATEST DATE, see EARLIEST DATE above.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

The dates that delimit the creation of the work are core for retrieval; therefore, EARLIEST DATE and LATEST DATE are primary access points that .should be accessible in combination with CREATOR and other information about the work. Searches on dates may be for exact dates or for ranges of dates.

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4.2.3. Date Qualifier

DEFINITION

A clarification of the meaning of the date, including an indication that different creative activities took place on different dates.

EXAMPLES


design
execution
alteration

addition
performance
restoration
destruction
discovery
bulk
inclusive
coverage
publication


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a term or phrase indicating which date is associated with which activity. Use lower case.

Use this subcategory when the span of time between different creative activities is significant; use repeating sets of EARLIEST and LATEST DATES to index the various activities. Use qualifiers to label the various sets of dates (e.g., creation, design, execution, alteration, restoration, addition). The type of dates used for groups, bulk, coverage, or inclusive, may be indexed with the DATE - QUALIFIER subcategory.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Control this subcategory with a controlled list, using terminology in the Examples above, and other terms as necessary.

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4.3. Creation Place/Original Location

DEFINITION

The location where the creation, design, or production of the work or its components took place, or the original location of the work.

EXAMPLES


Saint-Rémy (Bouches-du-Rhône, France) [Figure 17]
Kyoto (Honshu island, Japan)
Normandy (France)
Soho (Manhattan, New York, United States)
12 Holland Park Road (Kensington, London, England, United Kingdom)
[9]
York, Upper Canada (Now Toronto, Ontario, Canada)
Upper Egypt


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the location where the creation, design, or production of the work or its components took place. Alternatively, you may record the presumed original location of the work, when scholarly evidence supports this presumption. The name will usually be a geographic place, but you may include the name of a corporate body or building when appropriate.

It is important to record the geographic place where an object was created. For architectural works, except in the rare situation when a building has been moved, the original location is usually the same as the CURRENT LOCATION and need not be repeated here. For groups, this categories records the place of origination of the group; in addition, this subcategory may record the place of creation of the items in the group.

Specificity
The location should be recorded to the most specific level known, preferably the city or town of production. If the neighborhood (e.g., Montparnasse, Bloomsbury, or Soho) or street address (as for houses, apartments, studios, shops, or factories) is known, this may also be recorded.

Note that a work may have been created in multiple locations: For example, David's Death of Socrates was started in Rome and completed in Paris. A ceramic vase may have been thrown and painted at Faenza, but its lusterware glaze was added at Gubbio. A print may have been designed, printed, and published in three different locations. Bronzes may have been manufactured by a number of foundries or by a company that moved several times.Index multiple locations when necessary.

Explain such situations in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE, and index all the probable places in CREATION - PLACE/ORIGINAL LOCATION.

In order to avoid anachronisms, record the historic name for the place that refers to the period when the work was created, if possible. For example, the tomb of Mausolus was created in the city of Halicarnassus, Caria, Asia Minor, the site of which is now occupied by the town of Bodrum, Turkey; a manuscript may have been illuminated in the Duchy of Saxony, though that political entity no longer exists. To allow good retrieval, such historic names should be cross-referenced to their modern counterparts in the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY.

Uncertainty
If a specific location is unknown, record a more general location. For example, it may be known only that a work came from the Gandharan empire, which includes parts of present-day India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan; you may index the creation location as Gandharan empire. Alternatively, index multiple places when more than one is possible: For example, it may be probable, though not certain, that a Dutch artist was living in France when a canvas was painted [Figure 21]; both France and the Netherlands should be indexed as the creation location. Explain ambiguity and uncertainty regarding the creation location in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE, and index all the probable places in CREATION - PLACE/ORIGINAL LOCATION.

Form and Syntax
For detailed guidelines regarding the form and syntax of geographic names, see the CURRENT LOCATION category and the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Control this subcategory with the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY, which can be populated with terminology from the TGN, NGA (NIMA) and USGS, Canadiana Authorities, LC Name Authorities and LCSH.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

Creation location for the work is critical for retrieval, but it is often not known. Therefore, geographic place information related to the CREATOR (recorded in the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY) is often substituted in queries. Location information about the creator includes the geographic place that is implicit in nationality or culture, and geographic places recorded as the creator's loci of activity, birth place, and death place.

All the names associated with a particular place, including historical names, are important access points and should be stored in the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY. Searching on place names must be done at varying levels of specificity, so hierarchical relationships between places must be accommodated. For example, some researchers may look for works created in Italy, others for works from the narrower region Emilia-Romagna, and others for the specific city of Bologna. They may also search for place names that have changed over time and vary from language to language.

There may be multiple places of execution, so repeating occurrences should be accommodated. To allow researchers to find relationships with the greatest degree of specificity, the CREATION - PLACE would have to be associated with the appropriate CREATION - CREATION DATE and CREATION - CREATOR - ROLE (each of which also may repeat in multiple occurrences).

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4.3.1. Place Qualifier

DEFINITION

A clarification of the significance of the place or location, including an indication that different creative activities took place at different locations.

EXAMPLES


design
execution
alteration

publication


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a term or phrase indicating which creative activity is associated with this place. Use lower case.

Use this subcategory when different creative activities happened at different places or in other situations where the place or location requires qualification, for example to cite the place of publication for prints.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Control this subcategory with a controlled list, using terminology in the Examples above, and other terms as necessary.

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4.4. Object/Work Culture

DEFINITION

The name of the culture, people, or nationality from which the work originated.

EXAMPLES


Celtic
Chinese
Italian
Hispanic
Burgundian
Khoikhoi

Sienese
Pre-Columbian
Buddhist
Ottoman
Asian
ancient Egyptian


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the name of the tribe, band, ethnic group, linguistic group, cultural group, civilization, religious group, nation, country, city-state, continent, or general region from which the work originated, as indicated in authoritative sources.

Form and syntax
Capitalize terms for culture and nationality. Avoid abbreviations. Generally use the adjectival form of a proper noun for a culture, region, nation, or continent (e.g., Pre-Columbian, Celtic). In rare cases, when there is no commonly used adjectival form for a term, use the noun form (e.g., Asia Minor). Use terms in the language of the catalog record (English in the United States), except in cases where no exact English-language equivalent exists (e.g., Canaliño). Use diacritics as required.

For a group of items, include all the cultures represented in the group. If there are too many to list them all, include the most important or the most typical cultures evident in the group.

Uncertainty
When in doubt about which specific culture or nationality produced a work, choose a broader concept of which you are certain (e.g., use the broader Western Sudanese if it is uncertain if the culture is Dogon or Bamana).

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Control this subcategory with the GENERIC CONCEPT AUTHORITY, which can be populated with terminology from the Styles and Periods facet of the AAT.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

Given that the culture that produced the work is nearly always the same as the creator's culture, it will often be unnecessary to record the culture that produced the work in the CULTURE subcategory, provided that there is a link to the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY where culture or nationality is recorded, and provided that unknown artists (e.g., unknown Sioux) are recorded in the authority and linked to the CREATION - CREATOR subecategory of the object/work record.It is recommended to record unknown creators in the CREATION - CREATOR subcategory. However, the local practice of some institutions differs: In such cases, if the creator of the work is unknown and the CREATOR subcategory is left empty, CULTURE would be required for works produced by unknown creators.

Because a culture may have a recognizable style, the terminology used in CREATION - CULTURE may also be recorded in the STYLE category.

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4.5. Commissioner

DEFINITION

The name of the individual, organization, association, or group that commissioned the work from the creator.

EXAMPLES


Merenptah
Frederick II
Pius IX
, Pope
Shi Huang Di,
Emperor
Yorke,
Philip, Third Earl of Hardwicke
Tornabuoni, Francesco
Syndics of the Cloth Guild
Roman Senate
Parliament of Canada
Intercontinental Railroad, Inc.
IBM


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the name of the individual, group, or corporate body that commissioned the work.

Form and syntax
Follow rules for constructing names in the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY. Ideally, this should be a link to the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY, where a full record containing the creator's variant names and biographical information will be stored and available for retrieval.

In most cases, this subcategory will display the preferred name from the authority. However, if possible, display the name in use at the time of the commission. For example, Giovanni de' Medici eventually became Pope Leo X; therefore, works commissioned after he became pope should ideally display with the name Pope Leo X as the commissioner.

Information about the commission of a work of art or architecture is sometimes very important, and the context within which the work was created may have a significant impact upon its aesthetics and final form. This subcategory is used to record the names of all those who caused a work to be made, even if this does not involve a "commission" in the conventional sense of the word. The circumstances of the commission of a work often provide insight into its meaning or significance. A patron may influence the choice of iconography, style, size, or format for the work. Information about the commission may reveal the original function and context of a work.

The commissioner of a work may be well documented; for example, the original contract may exist, or the commissioner may be named in the inscription on the work. In other cases, the identity of the commissioner is unknown or uncertain. Information about the commission of a work may be well documented, or it may be uncertain. For example, Mantegna's Adoration of the Magi [Figure 24] was probably commissioned by the Gonzaga family, rulers of Mantua who employed the artist as court painter during the period from which the painting dates. Whether or not an individual is identified as a "commissioner" may be a matter of judgment. For example, while the name of a particular ruler may be inscribed on a Mayan pot, this does not necessarily mean that this ruler commissioned the work. [10] Record the name of the probable or possible commissioner in COMMISSIONER, and discuss such issues as necessary in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Control this subcategory with the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY, which can be populated from the controlled vocabularies named below.

Published sources of vocabulary and biographical information include the following: Canadiana_Authorities, LC Name Authorities, and general encyclopedia and biographical dictionaries.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

This category is used for both indexing and display purposes.

For ancient works and in other disciplines where the commissioner is considered critical to the act of creation of the work, record the commissioner in the CREATOR subcategory. Alternatively, the commissioner may be discussed in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE, as necessary.

Identification of the commissioner is important for researchers studying the history of patronage. As names for an individual or group may include variant spellings, and pseudonyms or nicknames may change over time, the researcher should have access by any variant name.

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4.5.1. Commissioner Role

DEFINITION

The profession or occupation of the commissioner of the work, restricted to the role that is relevant to the commission itself. If the commissioner is a group or organization, its major business or activity relevant to the commission.

EXAMPLES


pope
king
pharaoh
gentleman farmer
merchant
banker
businesswoman
religious order
corporation
guild
unknown


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the profession or occupation that is relevant regarding the commission of the work and the commissioner. Use terms in lower case.

Note that the full list of life roles and professions of the person or corporate body would be recorded in the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY.

For guidelines regarding the format and syntax of terminology, see CREATOR - ROLES and the PERSON/CORPORATE BODY AUTHORITY.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Control this subcategory with the GENERIC CONCEPT AUTHORITY, which can be populated with terminology from the Agents facet of the AAT.

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4.5.2. Commission Date

DEFINITION

The date or range of dates when a work was commissioned.

EXAMPLES


1666
12 May 1970
before 1252
between 1700 and 1798
Summer 1956
around the time of the Coronation of Louis XV
3rd century BCE


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a year, a span of years, or a phrase that describes the specific or approximate date associated with the commission of the work. Include nuance and expressions of uncertainty, as necessary.

Form and syntax
Follow rules for display dates in CREATION - CREATION DATE.

The date of the commission may be unknown or known only as an approximate date within a span. A work may have been commissioned in stages at different times. The date of commission will often shed light on other characteristics of a work of art or architecture. The date of commission may help establish the date of a work's creation or associate a commission with a particular event or historical situation.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Maintain consistent capitalization, punctuation, and syntax where possible. Index the dates in the controlled EARLIEST and LATEST DATE subcategories.

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4.5.2.1. Earliest Date

DEFINITION

The earliest possible date when a work was commissioned.

EXAMPLES


1666
1982-11-01


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the earliest month, day, and year, or the earliest year alone, when the work could have been commissioned.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. Record the precise day and time, if possible. Use the following syntax: YYYY-MM-DD (year, month, day, separated by dashes), if possible. (The standards suggest alternate possibilities: you may use an alternative syntax if you are consistent and it is compliant with the standards.) It is optional to record EARLIEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record LATEST DATE. For rules, see CREATION DATE - EARLIEST DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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4.5.2.2. Latest Date

DEFINITION

The latest possible date when a work was commissioned.

EXAMPLES


1666
1982-11-29


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the latest month, day, and year, or the earliest year alone, when the work could have been commissioned.

Form and syntax
Always record years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar in the indexing dates fields. Record the precise day and time, if possible. Use the following syntax: YYYY-MM-DD (year, month, day, separated by dashes), if possible. (The standards suggest alternate possibilities: you may use an alternative syntax if you are consistent and it is compliant with the standards.) It is optional to record LATEST DATE; however, if you record a value here, you must also record EARLIEST DATE. For rules, see CREATION DATE - LATEST DATE.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled format: Date information must be formatted consistently to allow retrieval. Local rules should be in place. Suggested formats are available in the ISO Standard and W3 XML Schema Part 2.


ISO 8601:2004 Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. Data Elements and Interchange Formats. Information Interchange. Representation of Dates and Times. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2004.

XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, 2001. www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/.


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4.5.3. Commission Place

DEFINITION

The geographic location where the work was commissioned.

EXAMPLES


Tokyo (Kanto region, Japan)
Mayfair (London, England, United Kingdom)
Bodrum (Mugla provinceTurkey)
Papal States (Italian peninsula)
Teotihuacán (México state, México)


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the name of the place of the commission. The location of the commission may be unknown or uncertain; it may be known at various levels of specificity. If an explanation regarding the place of commission is necessary (e.g., probably Teotihuacán, México state, México or Halicarnassus (Caria, Asia Minor) (now Bodrum, Turkey)), explain it in the DESCRIPTIVE NOTE and index it here in the COMMISSION - PLACE subcategory.

Form and syntax
For guidelines regarding the syntax and format of place names, see the CURRENT LOCATION category and the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Control this subcategory with the PLACE/LOCATION AUTHORITY, which can be populated with terminology from the TGN, NGA (NIMA) and USGS, Canadiana Authorities, LC Name Authorities and LCSH.

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4.5.4. Commission Cost

DEFINITION

The amount paid for the creation of a work, or for the completion of a particular part of the work.

EXAMPLES


26 scudi romani per day
100,000 US$
£140


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the fee or other compensation paid to the artist or manufacturer to create a work of art.

Form and synax
Use lower case; capitalize proper nouns. Include the amount, the currency, the type of transaction, and the type of payment, if applicable. Since historical currencies are difficult to convert into modern ones, it is important to record the value as it is found in documentation; however, a conversion into modern equivalents may also be included. Evaluations or estimations may be expressed as a range (e.g., probably 50-55 gold florins).

The price paid for a work of art or architecture is important for researchers studying patronage, the art market, and the economic status of artists. For example, when different artists received different amounts for similar work, this suggests their relative standing in the community and to patrons.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free text: This is not a controlled field. Even though this is a free-text field, the use of consistent format and controlled terminology is recommended for clarity. If it is required to retrieve Object/Work records based on the price of the commission, the cataloging instution should add subcategories with controlled format for the unit of currency and the amount of payment.

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4.6. Creation Numbers

DEFINITION

Any numbers assigned to a work of art in the context of its creation.

EXAMPLES


00334348
Ruspan Originals No. 527
DAR
no. 1227Y


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES:

Optional: Record object identifications used during creation, including numeric, alphabetical, or alphanumeric designations. Numbers may have prefixes or suffixes that are vital to their meaning. Include the type of number, if known.

Numbers take their meaning from the context within which they were assigned, so noting a number's type is important. Frequently, numbering systems reflect other organizational patterns; for example, they may be assigned consecutively by date or they may indicate a particular object (e.g., serial number), or a general kind of work (e.g., model number). Where numbers are known to carry these additional meanings, those facts should be recorded. Works of art are numbered to make it easier to identify them. Designs for architecture may also be numbered or coded for identification. Numbers assigned during creation may refer to a particular style or design, or they may help identify the work in historical documents. Numbers may be used as a "shorthand" to ensure that a work is clearly referenced. Alvar Aalto's Tea Trolley 900 is slightly different from his Tea Trolley 98. [11]

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Free text: The format of the number will vary depending on its type and source. Types of numbers or the roles numbers play may in some cases be described with terms from a controlled vocabulary such as the Dictionarium Museologicum.

RELATED CATEGORIES and ACCESS

Note that numbers signifying state and edition should be recorded in STATE and EDITION categories. Numbers assigned by previous owners or the current repository should be recorded in OWNERSHIP/COLLECTING HISTORY-OWNER'S NUMBERS and CURRENT LOCATION-REPOSITORY NUMBERS.

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4.6.1. Number Type

DEFINITION

The type of number assigned to a work in the context of its creation.

EXAMPLES


serial number
model number
catalog number


DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a term describing the type of number, if known. Use lower case.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Controlled list: Control this subcategory with a controlled list, using the terms in Examples above, and others as necessary.

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4.7. Remarks

DEFINITION

Additional notes or comments pertinent to information in this category.

DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record a note containing additional information related to this category. Use consistent syntax and format. For rules regarding writing notes, see DESCRIPTIVE NOTE.

FORMAT/TERMINOLOGY

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Use consistent syntax and format.

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4.8. Citations

DEFINITION

A reference to a bibliographic source, unpublished document, or individual opinion that provides the basis for the information recorded in this category.

DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: Record the source used for information in this category. For a full set of rules for CITATIONS, see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES - CITATIONS.

TERMINOLOGY/FORMAT

Authority: Ideally, this information is controlled by citations in the citations authority; see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES.

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4.8.1. Page

DEFINITION

Page number, volume, date accessed for Web sites, and any other information indicating where in the source the information was found.

DISCUSSION and GUIDELINES

Optional: For a full set of rules for PAGE, see RELATED TEXTUAL REFERENCES - CITATIONS - PAGE.

FORMAT/TERMINOLOGY

Free-text: This is not a controlled field. Use consistent syntax and format.

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EXAMPLES


[simple attribution, simple date]
Creator Description:Vincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853-1890)
Role: painter Identity: Gogh, Vincent van
Creation Date:1889 Earliest: 1889 Latest: 1889

[two artists, more complex date]
Creator Description:
Marco Ricci (Venetian, 1676-1730), figures by Sebastiano Ricci (Venetian, 1659-1734)
Role: painter Extent: landscape | architecture Identity: Ricci, Marco
Role: painter Extent: figures Identity: Ricci, Sebastiano
Creation Date: ca. 1725/1730 Earliest: 1720 Latest: 1735

[artist has no last name (not indexed as an inverted name)]
Creator Description: Giovanni di Paolo (Sienese, active by 1426, died 1482)
Role: painter Identity: Giovanni di Paolo
Creation Date: ca. 1445 Earliest: 1440 Latest: 1450

[corporate body creator, uncertain date]
Creator Description: Theodore B. Starr company (American, 1900-1924)
Role: creator Identity: Theodore B. Starr company
Creation Date: early 1900s, before 1924 Earliest: 1900 Latest: 1924


Qualified dates


[several artists, "between" date]
Creator Description: primary painter and calligrapher was Dai Xi (Chinese, 1801-1860), with additional inscriptions and colophons added by other officials; commissioned by Wu Zhongzhun
Roles: painter | calligrapher Identity: Dai Xi
Role: patron Identity: Wu Zhongzhun
Creation Date: between 1847 and 1849 Earliest: 1847 Latest: 1849

[date is "circa"]
Creator Description: Mato Wanartaka (Native American painter, ca. 1846-1904)
Role: painter Identity: Mato Wanartaka
Creation Date: ca. 1898 Earliest: 1893 Latest: 1903

[dates BCE]
Creator Description: unknown Roman
Role: artist Identity: unknown Roman
Creation Date: 1st century BCE Earliest: -0100 Latest: -0001

[century date]
Creator Description: unknown Persian
Role: artist Identity: unknown Persian
Creation Date: 16th century Earliest: 1500 Latest: 1599

[date over several centuries]
Creator Description: unknown Niger Delta
Role: sculptor Identity: unknown Niger Delta
Creation Date: 13th-15th century Earliest: 1200 Latest: 1499

[uncertain date]
Creator Description: Ogata Korin (Japanese, 1658-1716)
Role: painter Identity: Ogata Korin
Creation Date: : probably done sometime between 1711 and 1716
Earliest: 1711 Latest: 1716

[date is a period]
Creator Description: unknown Minoan
Role: artist Identity: unknown Minoan
Creation Date: Middle Minoan Palace period, ca. 1600 BCE
Earliest: -1630 Latest: -1570

[date in another calendar]
Creator Description: Riza (Persian, ca. 1565-1635)
Role: illuminator Identity: Riza
Creation Date: 1039 anno Hegirae (1630 CE) Earliest: 1630 Latest: 1630

[group date]
Creator Description: I. M. Pei & Partners (American, established 1955); chief architect: I. M. Pei (American, born in China in 1917)
Role: architectural firm Identity: I. M. Pei & Partners
Role: chief architect Identity: Pei, I. M.
Creation Date: 1968-1978 (inclusive dates)
Qualifier: inclusive Earliest: 1968 Latest: 1978


Multiple creators


[multiple artists]
Creator Description: Sean Kilcoyne (American, contemporary) and Daniel Reeves (American, born 1948)
Role: performance artist Identity: Kilcoyne, Sean
Role: performance artist Identity: Reeves, Daniel
Creation Date: 1989 Earliest: 1989 Latest: 1989

[printmaker and publisher]
Creator Description: Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760-1849); published by Nishimura Eijudo (Japanese, 19th century)
Role: printmaker Identity: Hokusai, Katsushika
Role: publisher Identity: Nishimura Eijudo
Creation Date: ca. 1831/1833 Earliest: 1828 Latest: 1836

[architect and draftsman]
Creator Description: architect: Willoughby J. Edbrooke (American, 1843-1896); draftsman: Chauncey G. Graham (American, active 1890s)
Role: architect Identity: Edbrooke, Willoughby J.
Role: draftsman Identity: Graham, Chauncey G.
Creation Date: 1892 Earliest: 1892 Latest: 1892

[animator and firm]
Creator Description: creator: Walt Disney Company (American, founded 1923); animator: Milton Kahl (American, 1909-1987)
Role: creator Identity: Walt Disney Company
Role: animator Identity: Kahl, Milton
Creation Date: before 1937 Earliest: 1932 Latest: 1937


Qualified attributions


["probably" attribution]
Creator Description: probably engraved by Pierre Le Pautre (French, 1660-1744)
Role: engraver Qualifier: probably Identity: Le Pautre, Pierre
Creation Date: ca. 1690 Earliest: 1685 Latest: 1695

["workshop of" creator]
Creator Description: workshop of Andreoli of Gubbio (Italian, ca. 1465/1470-1555)
Role: ceramicist Qualifier: workshop of Identity: Andreoli of Gubbio
Creation Date: ca. 1525/1528 Earliest: 1520 Latest: 1533

[two artists, "attributed to"]
Creator Description: attributed to the Painter of the Wedding Procession as painter (Greek, 4th century BCE); signed by Nikodemos as potter (Greek, active 4th century BCE in Athens)
Qualifier [controlled] attributed to Role: painter Identity: Painter of the Wedding Procession | Role: potter Identity: Nikodemos
Creation Date: 363/362 BCE Earliest: -0363 Latest: -0362

[multiple artists, "attributed to"]
Creator Description: Sèvres porcelain manufactory (French, established 1740); design: attributed to Jean-Claude Duplessis, le père (French, ca. 1695-1774); painting: attributed to Charles-Nicolas Dodin (French, 1734-1803)
Role: manufactory Identity: Sèvres porcelain manufactory
Role: designer Qualifier: attributed to Identity: Duplessis, Jean-Claude
Role: painter Qualifier: attributed to Identity: Dodin, Charles-Nicolas
Creation Date: 1760 Earliest: 1760 Latest: 1760


Unknown creators


[unknown artist]
Creator Description: unknown Colombian
Role: painter Identity: unknown Colombian
Creation Date: 17th century Earliest: 1600 Latest: 1699

[unknown artist, including Culture, which some institutions may wish to include]
Creator Description: unknown Northern Paiute
Role: weaver Identity: unknown Northern Paiute
Culture: Northern Paiute
Creation Date: ca. 1900 Earliest: 1895 Latest: 1905

[two unknown creators, extent of creation]
Creator Description: unknown Chinese, with French mounts
Extent: bowl Role: ceramicist Identity: unkown Chinese
Extent: mounts Role: silversmith Identity: unkown French
Creation Date: bowl: 1662/1722; mounts: ca. 1722/1727
Qualifier: bowl Earliest: 1662 Latest: 1722 | Qualifier: mounts Earliest: 1717 Latest: 1732

[two unknown artists]
Creator Description: illuminated by unknown German active in Mainz or Fulda, binding by unknown Mosan artist
Role: illuminator Extent: illuminations Identity: unknown German
Role: artist Extent: binding Identity: unknown Mosan
Creation Date: illuminated in 2nd quarter of 11th century, binding from 12th century, with later additions
Qualifier: illuminations Earliest: 1025 Latest: 1060 | Qualifier: binding Earliest: 1100 Latest: 1199


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NOTE: The outline numbers are subject to change; they are intended only to organize this document.

 

Revised 18 December 2008