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3. Editorial Rules, continued
 
 

3

EDITORIAL RULES, CONTINUED

   

3.3

 

Names

Included in this chapter

   

 

3.3.1

 

 

Term ID (required default)

   

 

3.3.1.1

   

Definition
Number identifying a name in ULAN.

 

 

 

3.3.1.2

 

 

Values
Numbers are system-generated in the following range: 1000000000 - 1999999999.

 

 

 

3.3.1.3

 

 

RULES

  • Term IDs may not be edited by the editors.

  • The system assigns unique, consecutive numbers to names as names are created or loaded in ULAN. Numbers of deleted names are not re-used.

  • Each name in each subject record has a different Term ID. Homographs do not share the same Term ID.

 

 

 

 

3.3.2

 

 

Name (required)

 

 

3.3.2.1

 

 

Definition
Proper names, appellations, nicknames, or other identifying phrases used to refer to a person or corporate body.

      • Examples

Wren, Christopher

Rothko, Mark

Christopher Wren

Giambologna

Kalf, Willem

Burgkmair, Hans, the elder

M$00eraud, Pierre-Antoine, p$02ere

Bartolo di Fredi

Pei, I. M.

Sullivan, Louis H.

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn

Michelangelo Buonarroti

Gilbert & George

Kicking Bear

Limbourg Brothers

Shen Nanpin

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

Katsushika Hokusai

McKim, Mead and White

Hand G

Associated American Artists

Master of the Dido Panels

National Gallery of Art

Achilles Painter

Unterberger family

Monogrammist A. C.

Feature Animation (Disney Studios, Walt Disney Company)

Museum of Classical Archaeology

 

 

 

3.3.2.2

 

 

Values
Names is a free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

 

 

 

3.3.2.3

 

 

Sources
Sources are discussed in a separate section, Sources for Names below.

 

 

 

3.3.2.4

 

 

Discussion
The Name in ULAN is analogous to the Name in TGN and the Term in AAT. A preferred name is sometimes the only name in the subject record. The preferred name is the name used most often in standard general reference sources in English. It is the name that is displayed in default displays, thus it is sometimes called the "default record-preferred name." If the name has been translated into English (e.g., Raphael), the preferred name in the local language of the artist should be included as well (e.g., Raffaello). Additional alternate and variant names for the artist should also be included.

 

 

 

3.3.2.5

 

 

RULES

 

 

 

3.3.2.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements
Record at least one name, the preferred name.

  • For modern Western artists, record the preferred name in inverted order. It is required to also record the preferred name in natural order; flag it as the Display Name.

      • Example

 

 

 

 

 

  • For early Western artists and non-Western artists, there often is no inverted form of the name.

  • List as many variant or alternate names as have at least one legitimate source. Consult sources to gather alternate names as time and editorial priorities allow.

     

3.3.2.5.2

   

Alphabet and diacritics

   »Roman alphabet

Record all names in the Roman alphabet.

  • Transliterations
    For names in a language that is not written in the Roman alphabet, record the vernacular name that has been transliterated into the Roman alphabet.
  • For the preferred name, you should ideally use the transliteration derived by applying ISO standards. However, you must often choose between variant transliterations without knowing which transliteration method was employed. In such cases, use the transliteration as found in the most authoritative of available possible sources.

  • If, at the direction of your supervisor, you are doing a special project that requires using a source in another alphabet, use the appropriate ISO standard for transliterating the names into the Roman alphabet.

  • For variant names, include names derived by alternate transliteration schemes. However, remember that you must have a source for the name - do not try to translate one transliterated name into another form (unless you are an expert in that language and have consulted with your supervisor).

   

   »Diacritics

Do not include diacritics or special characters in the Name field.

      • Example
      • L$00opez, Jos$00e Antonio
  • Indicate diacritical marks by using the diacritical codes in Appendix A (e.g., $00 in the examples above and below).

      • Example
        [diacritical codes in Appendix A]

     

   
  • If you are cutting and pasting names from an online source, to avoid accidentally pasting special characters and html codes in the Name field, do the following: Paste the name into Notepad text editor, delete diacritics and replace them with the codes from Appendix A, then copy the name and paste it into VCS. (Notepad will automatically remove many special characters, but you will have to manually replace the diacritics.)

     

3.3.2.5.3

   

Capitalization
Capitalize all proper names.

      • Examples
      • Unterberger, Ignaz
      • Stormont, Mary
      • Neri di Bicci
      • Velde, Willem van de, III
      • Machado and Silvetti
      • Superstudio

  • If the name includes an article, preposition, or conjunction (e.g. of, the, a, and, los, il, la, l', de, des, della), generally use lower case. If an article or preposition is the first element in the name, generally spell it with an initial capital letter. Consult standard reference sources for guidance (see Sources for Names below). See also Inverted and natural order names below.

      • Examples
      • Le Gros, Jean
      • Loo, Abraham Louis van

   »Mixed case

Names and other information should be expressed in mixed case (i.e., not in all-upper or all-lower case). If your source lists the name in all caps, translate it into mixed case.

  • Exception: An exception is when the name has been constructed by an editor (e.g., the word family in Unterberger family). The descriptive word added by the editor should be lower case. (Monogrammists and appellations devised by scholars for anonymous artists should be recorded in mixed case.)

  • Exception: For the name of a corporate body, if the official name includes all caps or an unusual arrangement of uppercase and lowercase, use uppercase and lowercase as found in authoritative sources (e.g., ARTstor).

   

3.3.2.5.4

   

Abbreviations

  • For the preferred name, avoid abbreviations, except for living artists, extant corporate bodies, or other modern persons or corporate bodies, who prefer to spell their name with an abbreviation.

  • For variant names, include common abbreviations and variations on the name with abbreviations spelled out, as appropriate.

      • Examples
        [preferred name does not include the abbreviation]
      • Lombard Master of Saint George (preferred)
        Lombard Master of St. George

        [preferred name for a modern artist includes the abbreviation; variant includes the abbreviated word spelled out]
      • Cadell, Florence St. John (preferred)
        Florence St. John Cadell (display)
        Cadell, Florence Saint John

   

   »Corporate Bodies

For corporate bodies, use abbreviations (e.g., ampersand or abbreviated words) for the preferred name, if found in authoritative sources.

      • Example
      • Bedford Lemere & Co. (preferred, display)
        Bedford Lemere and Co.
        Bedford-Lemere & Co.
   

   »Initials

Avoid initials or acronyms for the preferred name. When cited in authoritative sources, include initials for the variant names. Exception: For relatively modern artists or corporate bodies, initials may be included in a preferred name when this form is the most commonly used form of the name. See also Middle Names below.

      • Examples
        [preferred name does not include the initials]
      • Jackson, Billy Morrow (preferred, index)
        Billy Morrow Jackson (display)
        Jackson, B. M.

        [preferred name for modern artist includes the initial because this is the most common name for him]
      • Pei, I. M. (preferred)
        I. M. Pei (display)
        Pei, Ieoh Ming

   
  • Include periods after the initials and spaces between initials (e.g., Pei, I. M. above), except for the rare case when a modern corporate body prefers to spell its name without spaces or periods (e.g., SOM in the example below). See also Fullness of the name below.

      • Example
      • Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (preferred, display)
        Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
        SOM
     

3.3.2.5.5

   

Only one name per field
Caveat: A single name field should not contain multiple names, as is sometimes found in names contributed from other databases and in LC Subject Headings.

  • Do not include a second name in parentheses. For example, rather than expressing a preferred name with a second name imbedded with parentheses, as in Masaccio (Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone Cassai), record these two names as two different names. You would choose Masaccio as the preferred name (because it is the name by which the artist is commonly known), and the full name Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone Cassai as a variant name.


  • Even if your source lists a "heading" or entry-form name with parentheses, do NOT copy this verbatim into the ULAN field. Interpret the source, and enter the data in two separate fields. E.g., if the source lists a name as Hidley, Joseph H. (Joseph Henry), put this in two separate name fields in ULAN. That source's preferred name is Hidley, Joseph H., and a variant name from that source is Hidley, Joseph Henry. (Which name, if either, is the ULAN-preferred name depends upon your research in additional sources, of course, because ULAN requires the most commonly used name.)
     

3.3.2.5.6

   

Preferred Name
For the preferred name, choose the name commonly used in English-language sources.

  • Flag the preferred name. See Preferred Flag below.

  • To determine which name is most commonly used, consult standard artist dictionaries and encyclopedia, textbooks, and authoritative Web sites, such as a museum's official site. See Sources for Names for a list of standard sources.

  • For names that are not found in standard sources, consult museum records and other published sources. In the rare cases where it is necessary to create a name (as described in specific rules below), construct a preferred name based on the rules in this manual (e.g., rules for names containing "the elder" and "the younger"). If you cannot find the name in a source and if no specific ULAN rule is applicable for the name at hand, use the Anglo American Cataloguing Rules: 22 Headings for Persons, 24 Corporate Bodies, or the Chicago Manual of Style: 7.6 Personal Names or 7.47 Names of Organizations, and report the omission to your supervisor.
   

   »Consistency

Be consistent regarding the transliteration method, syntax, punctuation, capitalization, and style for the preferred names of artists in the same family or otherwise having similar names. For example, the following preferred names are unacceptable for the two brothers with similar names:

Marseus van Schrieck, Evert
Schrieck, Otto Marseus van

  • The preferred names for both of the above artists should be formatted consistently (in this case, based on warrant, with the names indexed under Marseus instead of Schrieck). Alternate formats and syntax may be used in variant names. Use authoritative sources and a comparison of other similar names already in ULAN to make the decision regarding how the preferred names should be formatted.

  • When dealing with corporate bodies that have hierarchical depth, for the names of subdivisions, use the same source that was used for constructing the hierarchy, if possible. See also 3.1 Hierarchical Relationships.

   

3.3.2.5.7

   

English Name
Always include the English name if it is different than the vernacular name and if warranted by sources.

  • The English name should generally be the preferred name, except where the vernacular or another name is more commonly used in English-language sources (e.g., Raphael in English, Raffaelo in Italian; National Museum in English, Národní Muzeum in Czech).

  • The preferred English name is not necessarily the fullest English name, but rather, the name commonly used in published sources in American English.

  • Caveat: If the British English spelling differs from the American English spelling, flag the British English name as appropriate (British English, Code 70053). See further discussion at Language for Names below.

  • Personal names: Note that most non-English-language personal names do not have an English equivalent (use authorized sources; do not invent English translations of names where none is found in the sources).

  • Corporate body names: Note that most major institutions in non-English-speaking places have an English equivalent for their name. If the English name appears in an authoritative source, including catalogues and Web sites published by the institution itself, use the English name as the preferred name. If you cannot find an English name in an authoritative source, do not invent an English translation; use the vernacular name as the preferred name.

      • Examples
        [for a museum in Prague, Czech Republic, preferred name is English because the English name appears most often in English-language sources and on the English page of the official Web site of the Museum]
      • National Museum (preferred)
        N$00arodn$00i Muzeum

        [for a museum in Mexico City, preferred name is English]
      • National Museum of Anthropology (preferred)
        Museo Nacional de Antropolog$00ia

        [for a French architectural studio, preferred name is French because the French name is most often used in English-language sources]
      • Atelier Le Corbusier (preferred)
        Le Corbusier Studio

        [for a museum in Bologna, Italy, preferred name is Italian because the Italian name is generally used in authoritative English-language sources, including English translations of catalogues published by the institution itself; the English name appears only occasionally in minor and antiquated sources]
      • Pinacoteca Nazionale (preferred)
        National Picture Gallery

   
  • Use the language field and the preferred language flag to mark the preferred English name. See the section on Languages below.

      • Examples
      • Alpert, Max (preferred, index, English-Preferred)
        Max Alpert (display)
        Al'pert, Maks (Russian-P)
        Al'pert, Maks Vladimirovich

      • Bearded Sphinx Painter (preferred, display, English-Preferred)
        Pittore della Sfinge Barbuta (Italian)
        Maler der b$04artigen Sphinx (German)

      • Aveline, Pierre, the elder (preferred, index, English-Preferred)
        Pierre Aveline the Elder (display, English)
        Aveline, Pierre, le vieux (French-Preferred)

      • New Artists Association of Munich (preferred, display, English-Preferred)
        Neue K$04unstlervereinigung M$04unchen (German-Preferred)
        NKVM

   

   

 

3.3.2.5.8

   

Inverted and natural order names
Names may be in inverted order (e.g., Wren, Christopher, used for indexing) or in natural order (e.g., Christopher Wren, used for display). Record the preferred name in both natural and inverted order. See also Names with articles and prepositions below.

   »Syntax

For the inverted order form of the name, record the name in the following order: last name, comma, first name, followed by middle names or initials and title, if any.

      • Examples
      • Harpignies, Henri-Joseph (preferred)
        Henri-Joseph Harpignies (display)

      • L$04ucke, Carl August, the younger (preferred)
        Carl August L$04ucke the Younger (display)

      • Alexander, R. M. (preferred)
        R. M. Alexander (display)

  • For the natural order form of the name, record the name in the following order: first name, middle names or initials (if applicable), and last name. If there is a title, separate it from the name with a comma (e.g., Charles Clifford, 6th Baron of Chudleigh). For Jr. or Sr., use a comma, but for the Elder or the Younger, do not use a comma.

  • Commas: For inverted names, in general, use only one comma (e.g., Meier, Richard and Sefton, Mrs. Walter). An exception is for titles and honorifics that appear at the end of the natural order form of the name; these titles and honorifics should be positioned at the end of the inverted name, which requires a second comma (e.g., Hartray, John F., Jr. or Clifford, Charles, 6th Baron of Chudleigh). Follow specific rules throughout this manual for placement of commas.

  • Initials: Use periods with initials; if there are multiple initials, include a space between them. Exceptions are for initials that are part of an official name of a corporate body (e.g., MoMA, which would typically be an alternate name, not the preferred name).

 

   

   »Persons

For the preferred name, names for persons should generally be in inverted order. Attempt to find the inverted form in a standard source; if you cannot find the name in a source, invert the name using the rules above. Label the appropriate names as Display (i.e., set to "yes") and Index with the Display Name flag.

      • Example
        [for a person, example from VCS]

   
  • If the preferred name is inverted, include the natural order form of the preferred name in position #2, and flag it as the Display Name (see Display Name below). It is not required to include natural order forms for non-preferred variants.

  • If you are not familiar with the language and cultural usage of the name, and you thus cannot determine which word is the last name, do not invert the name. In general, do not attempt to invert names in non-Western languages unless the name is inverted in authoritative sources.

  • Do not invert names of early artists (e.g., Gentile da Fabriano), unless the name is commonly inverted in authoritative sources (check the indices and other alphabetical lists in such authorities).

   

   »Corporate bodies

For corporate bodies, preferred names should generally be in natural order, not inverted. You may include a variant name in inverted order, if appropriate.

      • Examples
      • Eero Saarinen & Associates (preferred, display)
        Saarinen & Associates, Eero

      • Takenaka Komuten Company Limited (preferred, display)
        Takenaka Komuten Co. Ltd.

   

   »Early creators

For Western creators dating from before the 16th century, do not invert the preferred name if it is not inverted in authoritative sources. Such names are often a combination of a given name plus a patronymic, place name, or other descriptive phrase, and are thus not inverted because they do not have a "last name" per se. You may include an inverted version of the name as an alternate name, if appropriate.

      • Example
      • Leonardo da Vinci (preferred, display)
        Vinci, Leonardo da

      • Bartolo di Fredi (preferred, display)
        Bartolo di Fredi Cini
        Bartholus Magistri Fredis de Senis
   

   »Non-Western creators

As for names in all Western languages, prefer the name used most often in standard English-language sources.

  • For non-Western creators, do not invert the preferred name if it is not inverted in authoritative sources. In such cases, the name may already be listed in inverted order or may otherwise be inappropriate for inversion. For example, for Chinese names, it is generally proper to write the surname and first name in inverted order without a comma.

      • Examples
        [8th-century Chinese artist]
      • Zhang Xu (preferred)
        Chang Hs$04u
        Zhang Chengshi

        [modern Chinese artist]
      • Hai Bo (preferred, display)
        Bo, Hai (display)
        Hai, Po

  • Caveat: If the preferred name has no comma, include a variant name with a comma, if warranted. Note that Library of Congress names will typically include a comma; they should be added as variant names, not the preferred name (see AACR Flag below).

  • Westernized names: Note that some Chinese, Japanese, and other non-Western names have been westernized, meaning the surname is given last in natural order spellings. Such names should be inverted with surname first and a comma, as for Western artists.

  • Consistency: Try to consistently prefer the form used by a single general source (such as Grove) for names in a given language. So, for example, if the artist is in Grove, use that preferred form. If not, use the form preferred in a Japanese art specialty book. In the examples below, Hokusai's preferred name is an exception in inverted order because, although Grove lists it in natural order with no comma, he is very famous, thus we researched him in many sources; his name is listed with the comma in most other standard sources.

      • Examples
      • Hokusai, Katsushika (preferred, index, V)
        Katsushika Hokusai (display, V)
        Hokusai (V) .... name taken by the artist in 1798
        Shunro (V) .... go (artist's name), used in his years of training, when painting hosoban (narrow prints)
        Sori (V) .... go (artist's name), used in early career, named taken from his Rinpa-school master Tawaraya Sori
        Kako (V)
        Tatsumasa (V)
        Gakyojin (V)
        Taito (V) .... name used since 1810, when creating illustrated picture books
        Iichi (V)
        Manji (V)
        Tokitaro (V)

      • Aoki Mokubei (preferred, display, V)
        Hyakurokusanjin (V)
        Hyakuroku Sanjin (V)
        Kokukan (V)
        Kokikan (V)
        Kukurin (V)
        Robei (V)
        Ryubei (V)
        Sahei (V)
        Seirai (V)
        Teiunro (V)
        Yasohachi (V)

      • Ando Hiroshige (preferred, display, V)
        Ando, Hiroshige (V)
        Hiroshige, Ando (V)
        Utugawa Hiroshige (V)
        Ando (V)
        Hiroshige (V)
        Ichiyusai (V)
        Ichiryusai (V)
        Tokutaro (V)
        Tokubei (V)

   

   »Names with articles and prepositions

Generally, the "last name" part of the inverted name should not include the article or preposition. However, this depends upon common usage. For the preferred name, the inverted form of the name should begin with the article or preposition if this is the form found most often in standard authoritative sources. See also Capitalization above and Nicknames and pseudonyms below.

      • Examples
        [inverted form does not begin with preposition]
      • Loo, Abraham Louis van (preferred, index)

        [inverted form begins with preposition]
      • Da Rosa, Gustavo (preferred, index)

  • Caveat: For early artists, you must first establish if the name should be inverted at all. The names of early artists are often not inverted, and the article or preposition may represent a descriptive phrase, not a last name per se (e.g., Bartolo di Fredi is not inverted). See Early creators above.

  • Article without a space: For the variant names, if there is warrant, add names so that the record includes a version of the name with and without a space between the article and preposition (e.g., Le Gros and Legros in the example below).

      • Example
      • Legros, Jean (preferred, index)
        Jean Legros (display)
        Le Gros, Jean

  • How to invert a name: For the preferred name, if the name contains an article or preposition and you cannot find the inverted form of the person's name in authoritative sources, use the following procedure: assume that the use of uppercase letters for an article in the natural order form of a personal name (e.g., the "D" in William Frederick D'Almaine) is an indication that this part of the name should be used as the "last name" part of the inverted name (see examples above). If the article or preposition is in lowercase (e.g., Charles d'Agar), assume that it should not be part of the "last name." If there is warrant, include a variant name with the article as part of the "last name."

      • Examples
      • Agar, Charles d' (preferred, index)
        Charles d'Agar (display)
        d'Agar, Charles

      • D'Almaine, William Frederick (preferred, index)
        William Frederick D'Almaine (display)
        Almaine, William Frederick D'

   

   »Multiple words in a last name

When there are multiple names in a last name (e.g., with married names or Spanish names), the preferred name should be the most commonly used inverted name. Make a variant name with the additional word listed first, if there is warrant.

      • Example
      • Acosta Losada, Juan de (preferred, index)
        Juan de Acosta Losada (display)
        Losada, Juan de Acosta
       

3.3.2.5.9

   

Including variant names
Be certain that variant names are flagged as Non-preferred names. See discussion at Preferred Flag below.

  • At minimum, include important alternate and variant names that appear in major published sources and represent significant differences from the preferred name in form or spelling. As time and editorial priorities allow, check additional artist dictionaries and encyclopedia for additional alternate and variant names. Include variant names even if the differences in spelling and punctuation are minor.

      • Examples
      • Brueghel, Abraham (preferred, index)
        Abraham Brueghel (display)
        Breughel, Abraham
        Bruegel, Abraham
        Brughel, Abram
        Brucolo, Abraam
        Brucoli, Abraham
        Ryngraaf, Abraham
        Rijngraaf, Abraham

     

3.3.2.5.10

   

Names in various languages
Include names in various languages, if appropriate. This will generally apply only 1) to early artists who are extremely famous, 2) to modern or early artists who were active in more than one country, and 3) to corporate bodies. Flag the language, if known. See Language for Name below.

      • Examples
        [for an Austrian painter active in Italy]
      • Unterberger, Christoph (preferred, index, German-preferred)
        Christoph Unterberger (display, German)
        Unterberger, Cristoforo (Italian-preferred)

        [for an Italian artist active in China]
      • Castiglione, Giuseppe (preferred, index, Italian-preferred)
        Giuseppe Castiglione (display, Italian)
        Lang Shih-ning (Chinese-preferred)

  • The language designation may refer to a transliterated language (e.g., given that all names are in the Roman alphabet, labeling a name "Chinese" means that the Chinese name has been transliterated). If you know the transliteration method, label it with the appropriate language, as in Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles).

   

 

3.3.2.5.11

   

Variant transliterations
Include variant transliterations. See Roman alphabet: Transliterations above.

      • Examples
      • Gu Kaizhi (preferred, display, Chinese)
        Ku K'ai-chih (Chinese)

      • Shishkin, Ivan (preferred)
        Ivan Shishkin (display)
        Shishkin, Ivan Ivanovich
        Shiskin, Ivan Ivanovitch
        $07Si$07skin, Ivan Ivanovi$07c
        Chichkin, Ivan Ivanovitch
        Chichkine, Ivan-Ivanovitch
        Schischkin, Iwan Iwanowitsch
        Szyszkin, I. I.

     

3.3.2.5.12

   

Alternate spelling, punctuation
Include variants that differ in spelling, diacritics, capitalization, or punctuation.

      • Example
      • Delerive, Nicolas Louis Albert (preferred)
        Nicolas Louis Albert Delerive (display)
        Delarive, Nicolaes Louis Albert
        Delarive, Nicolas-Louis Albert
        Delerive, Nicolas-Louis Albert
        Della Riva, Nicolas-Louis Albert
        Delrive, Nicolas-Louis Albert
        della Riva, Nicolas-Louis Albert

   

 

3.3.2.5.13

   

Misspellings
Include a misspelling if it is found in a major published source (e.g., O'Keefe, Georgia, with one "f" below). If you are absolutely certain that the name is a misspelling (and not a historical name or other valid variant), note this in the Display Date for that name (because Display Date is a free-text field, you may use it for this purpose, although you must also have dates in mind for Start and End Dates; see Dates for Names below).

      • Example

     

   
  • Caveat: Names of early artists may be spelled in various ways, because there was no established, correct spelling during the artist's lifetime. Include such names only if they appear in major published sources. Do not describe such names as "misspellings" in the Display Date. Be sure to flag them as Historical.

  • Caveat: Do not include modern or historical misspellings if the misspelling occurs in only one document; such a misspelling will not be helpful in general retrieval and in fact lessens the value of ULAN as a general retrieval tool. Keep in mind that the total number of variant names generally should not exceed 15 or 20, and in most cases, one to five names are enough.

   

3.3.2.5.14

   

Fullness of the name
Include significant differences in the fullness of the name. The preferred name should not necessarily be the fullest name, but rather the most commonly used name.

      • Examples
      • Goya, Francisco de (preferred)
        Francisco de Goya (display)
        Goya, Francisco Jose y Lucientes de
        Francisco Jos$00e de Goya y Lucientes
        Goya y Lucientes, Francisco Jos$00e de
        Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
        Goya y Lucientes, Francisco Paula Jos$00e
        Goya, Francisco Jose de

  • Caveat: In general, do not include only a first name or only a last name; even if an archival or other source uses only the first or last name, do not include it in ULAN. For example, the single word Goya should NOT be a variant name in the above example. Exceptions include only rare examples of very famous artists, e.g., Raphael. Consult with your supervisor before adding such a name. Do not use a last name alone with a title of nobility, a social title, or an honorific (e.g., do NOT include Mrs. Stieglitz as a variant name). See Titles below.

   

   »Middle names

Avoid including middle names or initials in the preferred name, except when the most commonly used name includes the middle name(s) or initials. This exception will most often occur with modern artists who themselves prefer the fuller name. Include middle names and initials in variant names, where warranted by authoritative sources. See also Initials above.

      • Examples
      • Meier, Richard (preferred, index)
        Richard Meier (display)
        Meier, Richard Alan

      • Grassi, Guy (preferred, index)
        Guy Grassi (display)
        Grassi, Guy N.

   

 

3.3.2.5.15

   

Former Names

   »For persons

If an artist's name has changed over time, include the former names. Examples include legal name changes (e.g., a married name) and any other instance of former appellations. The preferred name should be the name most often used in authoritative sour

      • Examples
        [for married names]
      • Alma-Tadema, Laura Theresa (preferred, index)
        Laura Theresa Alma-Tadema (display)
        Alma-Tadema, Laura Theresa Epps
        Alma-Tadema, Lady Laura Theresa
        Alma-Tadema, Laura Teresa
        Alma-Tadema, Laura
        Alma-Tadema, Mrs. Laurence
        Epps, Miss Laura Teresa
        Epps, Laura Theresa

   

   »For anonymous artists

For artists whose identity has changed over time through scholarship, include their previous appellations as alternate names.

      • Examples
        [it is generally accepted that Robert Campin is the formerly anonymous Master of Flémalle]
      • Campin, Robert (preferred, index)
        Robert Campin (display)
        Master of Fl$00emalle

  • Caveat: If the identity of an artist is uncertain, do not record the additional names in one record; instead, make two records. For example, Barthélemy d' Eyck is possibly, but not firmly, identified with Master of King René of Anjou. Given that the association is uncertain, do not put the name Master of King René of Anjou in the record for Barthélemy d' Eyck. Make two separate records and link them through Associative Relationships (see also 3.6).

   

   »For corporate bodies

If the name of a firm or other legally incorporated entity has changed, first determine if the new name represents a second, distinct corporate body, which would require a separate corporate body record. Such related corporate bodies should be linked through as Related Persons and Corporate Bodies (see 3.6 Associative Relationships).

      • Example
      • Morris & Co. (preferred) .... name of the firm after 1875
        Morris and Company (display)
        Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. (historical) .... original name of the firm, 1861-1875
        Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Company (historical)

  • For one record: Generally include the former names as historical names in one record rather than making two records 1) if the corporate body is a historical studio or institution (e.g., Manufacture Royale des Gobelins and Manufacture Nationale des Gobelins are two names in the same record), or 2) if the primary partners have remained the same for a modern firm.

  • For separate records: Generally make two separate records 1) if the function or location of the historical corporate body changed with the name change, or 2) if the question involves a modern firm and legal incorporation, the primary partners have changed, and the firm apparently prefers to clearly distinguish its separate incarnations. Link the related corporate bodies (see 3.5 Associative Relationships).
       

3.3.2.5.16

   

Nicknames and pseudonyms
Include pseudonyms and nicknames if found in standard sources. If a pseudonym or nickname is the preferred name, do not invert it if it is not inverted in authoritative sources.

      • Examples
      • Man Ray (preferred)
        Radnitzky, Emmanuel
        Rudnitsky, Emmanuel

      • Pontormo (preferred)
        Jacopo Carrucci
        Giacomo da Pontormo
   

   »Article in the name

If the preferred name is a nickname or pseudonym that includes an article, generally invert the name (e.g., Volpino, Il). Include the display name in natural order in sequence number 2.

      • Example
      • Greco, El (preferred, index)
        El Greco (display)
        Theotokopolous, Domenikos

  • If the variant name contains an article, it is not necessary to include an inverted version. Include a variant name without the article, if warranted by an authoritative source. For example, Giuseppe Mazzuoli has two variant names: Il Bastarolo and Bastarolo.

      • Example
      • Mazzuoli, Giuseppe (preferred, index)
        Giuseppe Mazzuoli (display)
        Bastarolo
        Il Bastarolo
     

3.3.2.5.17

   

Homographs in the same family
Names with the same spelling are called homographs. Include designations that distinguish two or more members of the same family bearing the same name (e.g., the Elder or Sr.).

   »Junior and Senior

For modern artists, for the preferred name, include the abbreviations Jr. and Sr. if this is the form of the artist's name found in authoritative sources. Follow the syntax and punctuation in the examples below for display and indexing forms of the names.

      • Example
      • Hartray, John F., Jr. (preferred, index)
        John F. Hartray, Jr. (display)
        Hartray, J. F., Jr.

  • If a father and son with the same name are both in the ULAN, be sure to include Jr. and Sr. to distinguish between them, even if the Jr. or Sr. is omitted in authoritative sources.

  • Names containing non-abbreviated versions of "Junior" and "Senior" may be included as variant names.
     

3.3.2.5.18

   

'The younger' or 'the elder'
For pre-modern artists, for the preferred name, generally include the younger or the elder to distinguish between fathers and sons who are both in ULAN and who have the same name. Follow the syntax in the examples below. Note that for the preferred inverted name, the younger and the elder are spelled in lower case, while the display form includes the Younger and the Elder in upper case. This is an idiosyncrasy of ULAN that was devised as an aid in creating algorithms for retrieval.

      • Examples
      • Breughel, Pieter, the elder (preferred)
        Pieter Bruegel the Elder
        Brueghel, Pieter, I

  • Variants using Roman numerals may be included if found in authoritative sources (e.g., Brueghel, Pieter, I in the example above). However, the name with the Roman numeral should not be the preferred name when there are only two artists with that name and they are father and son. See Names with Roman numerals below.

  • Other languages: When there is warrant, include language variations of 'the younger' and 'the elder.' Examples include the following: Italian (il Vecchio, il Giovane), Dutch (de Oude, de Jonge), German (der $04Alterer, der J$04unger), Spanish (el Viejo, el Joven), and French (le Vieux, l'Ancien, le Jeune, and le P$02ere, le Fils).

      • Example
        [names in Italian and French are included]
      • Longhi, Martino, the elder (preferred, index)
        Martino Longhi the Elder (display)
        Longhi, Martino, il vecchio
        Martino Longhi il Vecchio
        Longhi, Martino, l'Ancien
        Longhi, Martino, I
        Longhi, Martino
        Lunghi, Martino
    • Make the English form (the elder, the younger) the preferred name, and the names in other language(s) variants. If you find warrant for an exception to this rule, consult with your supervisor. Add language flags where appropriate.
   

   »Names with Roman numerals

Use Roman numerals when all of the following conditions apply: 1) there is more than one artist with the same name in ULAN, 2) the artists have a familial relationship, 3) they have an older and younger relationship, 4) a) but they are not father and son (e.g., when a nephew and his uncle have the same name), or b) there are more than two people with the same name (e.g., when a father, son, and grandson all have the same name; if there are only father and son, use the elder and the younger, or Jr. and Sr.).

  • Follow the syntax and punctuation in the examples below. Note that the preferred name has two commas; the display name has no comma.

      • Examples
        [there are three men in the same family with the same name]
      • Teniers, David, II (preferred, index)
        David Teniers II (display)

        [name with the preposition "de" and a Roman numeral]
      • Verbruggen, Gaspar Peeter de, II (preferred, index)
        Gaspar Peeter de Verbruggen II (display)

  • If you come across an example where there are two or more related female artists with the same name in ULAN, consult with your supervisor.

  • In the extremely rare case where there are two sets of fathers and sons with exactly the same name and if their biographies are similar and thus do not provide adequate distinction between them in displays, use middle names to distinguish the two sets. If this is not possible, use "I" and "II" to distinguish one of the sets.

      • Examples
        [names are exactly the same between two sets of fathers and sons, middle names are unknown, all four are printmakers and painters, and there is overlap with works produced in the same century]

      • Harris, John, I (British engraver and probably painter, active 1686-1740)

      • Harris, John, II (British painter and printmaker, 1715-1755)

      • Harris, John, the elder (British engraver and watercolorist, 1767-1832)

      • Harris, John, the younger (British watercolorist, engraver, and lithographer, 1791-1873)
     

3.3.2.5.19

   

Titles and honorifics
Include honorifics and titles, as appropriate.

  • Syntax: Capitalize titles of nobility. Use punctuation and syntax as illustrated in the examples below. For the preferred name, avoid using more than one comma in the name, unless absolutely necessary. For example, record Alford, Viscountess Marian Margaret, NOT Alford, Marian Margaret, Viscountess. (This rule is in place to allow the name to be "pivoted" by algorithm, forming a natural order form of the name.) For variant names, include names with multiple commas if there is warrant for them.

  • For the preferred name, use the name most commonly used in standard sources (which will often omit the title).

      • Example
        ["Sir" is not included in the preferred name]
      • Allan, William (preferred, index)
        William Allan (display)
        Allan of Edinbro'
        William Allan, A.R.A. .... elected A.R.A. in 1825
        Allan, Sir William .... knighted in 1842

  • Title in English: When the title is included in the preferred name, use the form of the title most often used in English-language sources. For kings and queens, this will likely be the title translated into English (e.g., Queen rather than Reina). For other titles, the title may be in the original language because the title does not necessarily translate directly into English (i.e., the English translation of the word may not actually designate the same rank).

  • Title must go with a full name: For both preferred and variant names, do not include names comprising only the title or honorific and a last or given name. For example, do not include a variant name such as Miss Browning, Sir Jackson, or King Henry; instead, record Browning, Miss Elizabeth; Sir Robert Jackson; or Henry VII, King of England. An exception may occur with anonymous artists who are known only by one name (e.g., Master Adolfo).
   

   »Social titles and courtesy titles

Social titles denote gender and marital status. Courtesy titles are used when addressing persons of nobility.

  • For males: For males, you may include courtesy titles (e.g., Lord) in a variant name if there is warrant. In general, do not include variant names with social titles denoting gender for males (e.g., Mr., Monsieur, etc.).

  • For females: For females, you may include courtesy titles (e.g., Lady) in a variant name if there is warrant. In contrast to the rule for males, you may include variant names with social titles denoting gender or marital status (e.g., Mrs., Miss, Mme, Mlle, etc.) if these forms are found in authoritative sources and if they clarify the significance of the name (i.e., if they designate a married or maiden name). Use the punctuation and syntax displayed in the following example. Note that the syntax with one comma "Sefton, Mrs. Walter" is preferred, not "Sefton, Walter, Mrs.", although the latter could be included as a second variant name if there is warrant.

      • Examples
        [a variant name]
      • Sefton, Mrs. Walter

  • Use spelling and punctuation of female social titles as indicated below:
   
Mrs. Mlle
Miss Mme
Ms.  
     
   
  • Indicate "married name" in the display date for the name, where appropriate. See Dates for Names below.
   

   »Titles of nobility and peerage

Titles should not be part of the preferred name unless 1) the name-plus-title is the form most commonly used to refer to the person or 2) to correspond with precedents of similar names already in the ULAN.

  • For the preferred name, generally include the title if the person was born to the title or in succession for the title (i.e., hereditary peerages and royal titles, e.g., King, Prince, Princess, Duke, Marquis, Earl, Viscount, Baron, Comte, Graf). There is often a distinction between the name of the peerage and the surname (e.g., Talbot and Shrewsbury in the example below). Follow the syntax below. Note that the inverted preferred name in such cases may have two commas. The display name has one comma.

      • Examples
        [the hereditary title "Earl" is part of the preferred name]
      • Talbot, John, 16th Earl of Shrewsbury (preferred, index)
        John Talbot, 16th Earl of Shrewsbury (display)

      • Contini-Bonacossi, Alessandro, Count (preferred, index)
        Count Alessandro Contini-Bonacossi (display)

  • For the preferred name, generally exclude the title if it was bestowed during the person's lifetime (i.e., life peerages such as knighthoods and baronets, e.g., Sir, Dame).

      • Examples
      • Rubens, Peter Paul (preferred, index)
        Peter Paul Rubens (display)
        Rubens, Sir Peter Paul
        Sir Peter Paul Rubens

      • Hepworth, Barbara (preferred) (preferred, index)
        Barbara Hepworth (display)
        Hepworth, Dame Barbara

  • Baronets: A variant name for baronets should include both Sir and Baronet, the latter following the name to distinguish him from a knight (e.g., Sir Alfred Bridge, Baronet).

  • Kings, queens, emperors: Note that kings, queens, emperors, and other nobility are often referred to by their first name without the use of a surname. Use syntax and punctuation as illustrated in the examples below:

      • Examples
      • Henry VII, King of England (preferred, display)
        King Henry VII of England
        Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond

      • Christina, Queen of Sweden (preferred, display)

      • Trajan, Emperor of Rome (preferred, display)
        Trajan
        Caesar Divi Nervae Filius Nerva Traianus Optimus Augustus (official name)
        Caesar Nerva Traianus Germanicus .... 97-98 CE
        Marcus Ulpius Traianus .... original name
        Optimus Princeps .... nickname meaning "the best chief"
    • A consort, such as a queen consort who married the hereditary king, should generally have a preferred name that omits the title (based on common practice).

      • Example
        [for the Italian woman, queen consort of Philip V of Spain]
      • Farnese, Elisabetta (preferred, index, Italian)
        Elisabetta Farnese (display)
        Isabel de Farnesio (Spanish)
        Isabella Farnese, Reina de Espa$09na
        Elisabetta, Regina di Spagna
        Elisabetta Farnese, Queen of Spain
   

   »Popes and clergy

Include the title Pope in the preferred name. As a variant name, include the person's name before becoming pope.

      • Example
      • Leo X, Pope (preferred)
        Pope Leo X (display)
        Medici, Giovanni de'

  • For members of the clergy other than the pope, include the title (e.g., Father, Fra, Bishop, etc.) in the preferred name if it is the name most commonly found in sources. In general, the title should be included in the preferred name. Also check precedents in ULAN for consistency.

      • Examples
      • Baldini, Fra Tiburzio (preferred, index)
        Fra Tiburzio Baldini (display)

      • Beckett, Sister Wendy (preferred, index)
        Sister Wendy Beckett (display)
        Beckett, Sister Wendy Mary
        Beckett, Wendy

      • Hugh of Northwold, Bishop of Ely (preferred, display)

  • If the person assumed a new name when becoming a member of the clergy, include their former name as a variant name (e.g., Guido di Piero in the example below).

      • Example
      • Angelico, Fra (preferred, index)
        Fra Angelico (display)
        Angelico, Fra Giovanni
        Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole
        Guido di Piero .... baptismal name
        Guido di Piero da Mugello
   

   »Multiple titles

If a person has multiple titles and it is unclear which is most commonly used, attempt to put the titles in a chronological order, with the latest title (title of highest rank) being preferred or a variant closer to the top of the list.

   »Abbreviations

Abbreviations for titles (e.g., Bt., Bart., Hon.) may be part of a variant name if there is warrant; however, the full version of the abbreviated word should be represented in another name. Names with abbreviations should not be preferred, with the exception of Jr. and Sr. (discussed above).

      • Example
      • Clerk, John (preferred, index)
        John Clerk (display)
        Clerk, Sir John, Baronet
        Clerk, Sir John, Bt.
        Clerk, Sir John
     

3.3.2.5.20

   

Names with credentials and degrees

   »Doctors, lawyers, etc.

In the rare event that there is warrant for a name followed by an indication of a degree or credentials (e.g., Ph.D., M.D., M.F.A., etc.), place the initials for the degree at the end of the name, using two commas for an inverted name. Do not put a space between the initials of the degree. Such a name should never be the preferred name.

      • Example
        [variant name]
      • Crane, Arnold Herman, J.D.
   

   »Royal Academicians

Note that R.A. typically does not refer to initials of names, but rather to the credential of Royal Academician. Do not include this designation in the preferred name. For a variant name, you may include it if there is warrant; use periods with "R.A."; do not include a space between "R." and "A." Use two commas for the inverted name.

      • Example
        [variant name]
      • Pickersgill, Frederick Richard, R.A.

    • For R.A., add a display date for this variant name (e.g., made a Royal Academician in 1994). A date for when a person was made a Royal Academician is usually readily available. See Dates for Names below.
     

3.3.2.5.21

   

Anonymous creators
For anonymous creators, use an appellation provided by an authoritative source or devised by scholars. In the context of this manual, an "anonymous creator" is defined as a creator whose hand is identified and oeuvre is established, but whose name is not known (e.g., Master of the Morgan Leaf). This type of creator is distinguished from Unknown creators, discussed below. Generally, do not invert appellations for anonymous creators.

      • Examples
      • Monogrammist A. D. L. (preferred)
      • Borden Limner (preferred)
      • Master of Artajona (preferred)

   »Unknown creators

Unknown creators are outside the scope of the ULAN. An unknown creator has no identified oeuvre or personality; an appellation is typically generic and encompasses many artists (not a single individual); The appellation may include the word "unknown" and the culture or nationality (e.g., unknown Korean); it may include broad dates (e.g., unknown Korean 16th century). Unknown creators are used in cataloguing art works and may be included in local authorities, but are not included in ULAN. Note that some institutions use the word Anonymous to refer to Unknowns.

       

3.5.2.5.22

   

Constructed names
A constructed name is a name created by the editor, rather than being transcribed from a source.

  • For the preferred name, do not construct a name if you can avoid it. Transcribe the name as found in the source.

    • Exception: If you need to find a particular form of the name in order to be consistent with other similar preferred names or to follow specific rules in this manual, you may construct a preferred name.

  • For variant names, editors must occasionally devise a name that is not found in published sources. Do so only in the situations described below. If you feel that another situation warrants the construction of a name, consult with your supervisor before doing so.
   

   »Display names

A Display Name is used in horizontal displays (e.g., in wall or slide labels). If the preferred name is in inverted order, construct a Display Name by expressing the name in natural order.

  • Flag the Display Name by setting the flag to Yes. See a discussion of the flag at Display Name Flag below.

      • Example
     

   
  • If the name was constructed by the editor, the source for the Display Name should be the following:

    Brief Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program
    Full Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program. Term warranted by consensus of editorial staff.

     

3.3.2.5.23

   

Vernacular names
Flag names as Vernacular, Other, or Undetermined as recommended at Vernacular Flag below. Note that Undetermined is typically used only for data being batch loaded; editors should avoid using it.

  • Most artist names will be in the vernacular language of the artist. However, if you are unfamiliar with a particular vernacular language, in order to determine which name is the vernacular name, consult a reference source that labels the vernacular or names in other languages, or a source in the vernacular language.

  • For the preferred name, choose the name most commonly used in English-language sources, which is generally the vernacular name. Only occasionally do artists have name variations in English; these occasional examples include famous early artists, anonymous artists, and corporate bodies.
   

   »Multiple vernacular languages

If an artist worked in multiple nations where multiple languages were spoken, there may be multiple vernacular languages applicable to a single artist.

      • Example
        [The artist was French-speaking Flemish, but worked in Italy, so both French and Italian are Vernacular names]
   
     
   
  • There may be several variants in any given language. Be sure to list all variants in any vernacular language and flag them as vernacular too (as in the example above).
       

3.3.2.5.24

   

Official name
The official name is the full name in natural order. This name typically includes all middle names and titles. The official name is not necessarily the preferred name.

  • For the preferred name, do not use a long name simply because it is the fullest, official name for the person or corporate body. Prefer the short version of the name most commonly found in sources. For instance, the preferred name for the person will not necessarily include a title. Include the longer name with the title as a variant name and flag it as Other Flag = Official Name, if appropriate. See Other Flags below.

      • Example
     

3.3.2.5.25

   

Language
Flag the language of the name, if known, by choosing a language from the controlled list of languages. See Language for Names below.

     

3.3.2.5.26

   

Order of the names
The names must be organized according to a set of rules. Number the names as instructed in Sequence Number below.

     

3.3.2.5.27

   

Editing contributed names
Editors should not edit names that are from contributors, except for minor punctuation errors and very minor typos. If you add a date or a source to the name, add the initials VP as a contributor for the name.

  • If directed to do so by your supervisor, you may occasionally delete contributed names that are inappropriate to ULAN, including names that are only first or last names and names that are misspellings that appeared in only one archival source (and thus are not common misspellings). Such names inhibit the utility of ULAN in retrieval.
     

 

3.3.3

   

Preferred Flag (required-default)

     

3.3.3.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating whether or not the name is the preferred name for its subject record.

     

3.3.3.2

   

Values
The flags are controlled by a pick list in VCS: P - Preferred, V - Variant

     

3.3.3.3

   

Sources
For a discussion of how to determine which name should be the preferred name, see Name above.

     

3.3.3.4

   

Discussion
Every record must have a preferred name to use as a default in displays. For further discussion of preferred names, see Name above.

     

3.3.3.5

   

RULES

  • The name in sequence number 1 is automatically flagged "preferred" by the system. If this is not correct, change the Preferred Flag and sequence numbers accordingly.
     

 

3.3.4

   

Qualifier

     

3.3.4.1

   

Definition
Word or phrase used primarily to distinguish between homographs; rarely used in ULAN.

     

3.3.4.2

   

Values
Free text.

     

3.3.4.3

   

RULES

  • Currently qualifiers are used in the ULAN only in very rare cases. If you think you have warrant for adding a qualifier, consult with your supervisor.

  • You may add a qualifier in the very rare case that a modern artist assumes a generic or ambiguous appellation that is confusing or unintelligible to end-users.

    • For example, the artist Masakatu Iwamoto calls himself "Mr." Given that Mr. is a title and thus displaying that "name" alone without qualification would be confusing to end-users, the variant full name may be used as a qualifier for Mr. Use the Other Flags to flag the pseudonym and the birth name in the record.
     

 

3.3.5

   

Sequence Number (required-default)

     

3.3.5.1

   

Definition
The Display Order number (or Sort Order number), indicating the sequence of the name in relation to the other names of a subject record.

     

3.3.5.2

   

Values
System generated, but the numbers may be changed by the editor. Values begin with 1 and are numbered sequentially; there is no upper limit imposed by the system.

     

3.3.5.3

   

Discussion
Most records have only 1 to 5 names. It would be highly unusual to require more than 15 or 20 names for an artist or corporate body. If you need to add more than that, consult your supervisor.

     

3.3.5.4

   

RULES

  • Number the names in sequence. Do not skip numbers. Arrange the names in a logical order, as described below.

  • The name in sequence number 1 must be the subject default Preferred name, which is the most commonly used form, in inverted order (where appropriate). When the name in sequence number 1 is inverted, the name in sequence number 2 must be the natural order form of that name.

  • For names in sequence number 3 and below, place the next most commonly used forms at the top of the list. Position former or other alternate names above names that are rarely used. Place misspellings at the bottom of the list.

  • If there are historical names, arrange the names in reverse chronological order, with Current names placed before Historical ones.

  • Within the parameters of the above rules, keep variants in the same language or of similar spelling together when possible.

      • Examples
     
   

[as displayed in VCS]

     
   

[another display in VCS]

     

 

3.3.6

   

Historical Flag (required-default)

     

3.3.6.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating the historical status of the name.

     

3.3.6.2

   

Values
Values are derived from a controlled list: B - Both, C - Current, H - Historical, NA - Not Applicable, U - Unknown.

     

3.3.6.3

   

Sources
Editors should use standard, authoritative sources in determining whether or not a name is historical.

     

3.3.6.4

   

RULES

  • Note that in ULAN, most names will be flagged NA because this flag only rarely applies to persons.

  • This flag is most often used with corporate bodies. If there are both current and historical names in the record, use Current and Historical flags to clarify. In all other cases, leave the flag set to NA.

  • Before entering a historical name in the record, ascertain whether or not this is actually a separate corporate body that should be recorded in a separate record. See Chapter 3.3: Names: Former Names: Corporate Bodies.

  • Current: If there are historical names, flag the name that is currently in use.

  • Historical: If the name was used in the past but is not used currently, set the flag to Historical. Also flag the current name.

  • Both: This flag will only rarely be used in ULAN. Consult your supervisor if you believe that you have need of this flag.

  • Not Applicable: This is the default for ULAN names. Use it for all names, except if there are historical names in the record (when you should flag the historical and current names).

  • Unknown: This is used primarily for data loaded from contributors. Editors should avoid using it if possible.
     

 

3.3.7

   

Term Type (required-default)

     

3.3.7.1

   

Definition
Flag currently not in use in ULAN.

     

3.3.7.2

   

Values
Value is derived from a controlled list: NA - Not Applicable.

     

3.3.7.3

   

RULES

  • Not Applicable: Currently in ULAN, all Term Type flags are set to NA.
     

 

3.3.8

   

Part of Speech (required-default)

       

3.3.8.1

   

Definition
Indicates the category into which the name would be placed relative to its normal function in a grammatical context, currently set to NA in ULAN.

       

3.3.8.2

   

Values
Values are derived from a controlled list: N - Noun, A - Adjectival, B – Both; U – Undetermined; N/A – Not Applicable.

       

3.3.8.3

   

RULES

  • Noun: The default flag is N/A. ULAN names are used as proper nouns; the flag is currently set to N/A.
       

 

3.3.9

   

Vernacular Flag (required-default)

     

3.3.9.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating whether or not the name is the "vernacular" name for a certain artist, "vernacular" referring to the term in the local language(s).

     

3.3.9.2

   

Values
Values are derived from a controlled list: V - Vernacular, O - Other, U ? Undetermined.

     

3.3.9.3

   

Discussion
Vernacular refers to the name in the local language of the artist. Most artists' names in ULAN are vernacular names. Vernacular names include transliterated names, even though they are written in the Roman alphabet but the local language uses another alphabet or method of writing.

     

3.3.9.4

   

RULES

  • Vernacular: The default flag is Vernacular. This is the correct flag for all names in the local language of the artist.

  • Other: If the name is in a language other than the artist's native language, set the flag to Other. This will generally only occur with early artists who are famous (e.g., Raphael), with anonymous artists (e.g., Master of the Ovile Madonna), or with corporate bodies (Audet and Charbonneau for the French firm Agence Audet et Charbonneau).

  • Undetermined: Do not use Undetermined. It is typically used for data loaded into the system where the language of the terms/names in the load is unknown.
     

 

3.3.10

   

Language for Names (required-default)

     

3.3.10.1

   

Definition
The language of the name. A single name may be spelled the same in multiple languages.

     

3.3.10.2

   

Fields

  • 1. Language: Term referring to the language of the name.
  • 2. Language Code: Unique code for the language in VCS. Related languages have codes within a given range, to allow retrieval of related languages.
  • 3. Language Preferred Flag: Indicates whether or not this name is the preferred way to refer to the artist in that language.

      • Examples
        [in VCS]
     
     
   

[in an end-user display]
Raphael (preferred, index, O, English-P)
Raphael Sanzio (O)
Raphael Santi (V)
Raffaello (V)
Raffaello da Urbino (V)
Raffaello d'Urbino (V)
Raffaello Sancio d'Urbino (V)
Raffaello Santi (V)
Raffaello Sanzio (V, Italian-P)
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (V)
Raffaelo Santi (V)
Santi, Raffaello (V)

     

3.3.10.3

   

Values
Controlled by the Languages file (see example below)

      • Example
     

3.3.10.4

   

Sources
New languages may be added to the controlled list only as absolutely necessary. Be certain that the language you need is not already entered in a synonymous form in the controlled list. If you feel you need to add a language, consult with your supervisor.

  • The primary source for language names in ULAN is the following:

      • Brief Citation: Ethnologue (2000)
        Full Citation: Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 14th edition. Barbara F. Grimes, ed. Dallas, Texas: SIL International, 2000.

  • If you wish to add a language found in another source, consult with your supervisor.

  • Sources providing information regarding which language the name represents are the following:

    • Standard general sources for names, as described in Names above.
    • Encyclopedia or another authoritative, general information resources.
     

3.3.10.5

   

RULES

  • It is not necessary to flag languages for names, unless there are names in multiple languages for a given artist. This will typically happen with artists who lived or worked in multiple nations, famous early artists who are known by names in various languages, anonymous artists, and corporate bodies.

  • Where known, flag the appropriate language for every name as your expertise, time, and editorial priorities allow.
     

3.3.10.6

   

Uncertainty
Label a language only if your source indicates it or if you are an expert in the given language. Do not guess.

  • If you are uncertain regarding a specific language, use the broader designation. For example, if your source does not specify if the name is Ancient Latin, Medieval Latin, or Liturgical Latin, use the more general designation Latin.
     

3.3.10.7

   

Preferred English name
If there is an English version of a name that is different from the vernacular name, it is required to flag the preferred English name for the artist. The preferred English name will typically be the overall record-preferred name. For the preferred English name, link to "English, Code 70051."

  • For the preferred English name, choose the name most commonly used in American English sources (but flag it "English, Code 70051", not American English Code 70052).

    • American vs. British English: In the extremely rare event that a name is spelled differently in American and British English, label the British spelling with the language British English. It is generally not necessary to label the American English spelling with language = American English, because names with language flag = English are presumed to be appropriate for American English unless otherwise indicated.
     

3.3.10.8

   

Transliterated names
Flag the name as representing a particular language, even if the name has been transliterated from another alphabet into the Roman alphabet.

   »Chinese

For Chinese, there are special language designations for the two most common transliteration methods: Pinyin and Wade-Giles. Pinyin is the transliteration method preferred for preferred names in ULAN. If your source indicates which was used for the name, flag the language appropriately. For transliterations other than Pinyin and Wade-Giles, or if you are uncertain what transliteration method was used, label the names as simply Chinese (provided you are sure that the name is Chinese).

     
     

 

3.3.11

   

Preferred Flag for Language (required-default)

     

3.3.11.1

   

Definition
Flag designating whether or not the name is preferred in that language.

     

3.3.11.2

   

Values
Controlled by a pick list: N - Non Preferred, P - Preferred, U - Undetermined

     

3.3.11.3

   

RULES

  • The default for this field is Non-preferred. Change the flag to Preferred if name is the short, commonly-used form of the name in a particular language.

  • There may be only one preferred name per language.
     

 

3.3.12

   

Language Status (required-default)

       

3.3.12.1

   

Definition
Indicates if the term is a loan term from another language. Given that most personal names are represented in the vernacular language, this flag is currently not being used in ULAN.

       

3.3.12.2

   

Field

  • Language Status: Flag indicating the status of the term as a loan term.
       

3.3.12.3

   

Values

  • Controlled values: U = undetermined, N/A = not applicable, L = Loan term. In TGN, the default for this field is Undetermined.

       

3.3.12.4

   

RULES

  • Do not use this flag in ULAN, unless directed to do so by your supervisor. The default is set to Undetermined.
       

 

3.3.13

   

Contributor for Name (required-default)

     

3.3.13.1

   

Definition
A reference to the institution or project that contributed the name.

     

3.3.13.2

   

Fields

  • Brief Name: An acronym, initials, or abbreviated name of the institution.

  • Full Name: A full version of the name of the contributing institution or project.
     

3.3.13.3

   

Values
Controlled by a link to a file of controlled terminology; the list changes as new contributors are added. The current values are visible in the image below (as of October, 2004).

      • Example
     

3.3.13.4

   

Sources
Use correspondence with an official representative of the institution or current, official publications of the contributing institution, including its official Web site.

  • If the institution does not have an official acronym, consult with your supervisor when creating a Brief Name.

  • Make sure that the contributor's names are the same in all three vocabularies. Make the numeric Code for the contributor the same in all vocabularies, if possible.
     

3.3.13.5

   

Discussion
The Brief Name (acronym, initials, or abbreviated name of the institution) appears in the artist record. The Full Name is linked to the Brief Name in displays for the end users.

     

3.3.13.6

   

RULES

  • The following are rules for assigning a contributor to an artist or corporate body ULAN name (not for adding contributors' names to the controlled list).

  • The default Contributor is VP (Vocabulary Program). Editors may change contributors' initials only in very rare cases. If you feel it is necessary to change a link from one contributor to another, consult with your supervisor.

  • If you are adding data by hand, even if the data was given to you in a printout or other form by an institution or project that is a contributor, the contributor should be VP because the Vocabulary Program is actually entering the data (and thus some amount of interpretation is going on). The Source of the name should refer to the institution or project; they are the Source, NOT the Contributor.

      • Example
        [Contributor is VP, not Census because VP editors edited the name that had been loaded into VCS]
     
   
  • Contributors' names other than VP will be linked to the name and other data in the record at the time when the data is loaded into VCS, and it virtually never needs to be changed.
     

 

3.3.14

   

Preferred Flag for Contributor (required-default)

     

3.3.14.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating whether the name is the one preferred by the contributor or a non-preferred name from the contributor.

     

3.3.14.2

   

Values
The values are derived from a controlled list: P - Preferred, N - Non-preferred.

     

3.3.14.3

   

RULES

  • Flag one and only one VP-preferred name for each record. Each contributor may have only one preferred name per subject record.

  • The VP-preferred name should be the same name as the overall Preferred Name (descriptor) for the record.

  • The default flag for a new variant name in VCS is Non-preferred for VP (or any other contributor). If you are adding a preferred name for VP, change the flag to Preferred (which swaps the name to the Preferred position, sequence no. 1).

  • For contributed data, the flag is set when the data is loaded. Editors rarely have to change this flag on data loaded from contributors. If you feel you should do so, please consult with your supervisor. Note that there may be one and only one name preferred by each contributor per record.
     

 

3.3.15

   

Sources for Names (required)

     

3.3.15.1

   

Definition
A reference to the source used as warrant for the name, typically a published source.

     

3.3.15.2

   

Fields

  • Brief Citation: A brief reference to the source. See Appendix C: Citations.

  • Full Citation: A full citation for the source, including the author's name, title, and place and date of publication. See Appendix C: Citations.
     

3.3.15.3

   

Values
Sources for the citations are title pages of the works.

  • Values are controlled by the Sources file in VCS. A source must be added to the Source file in order to be used in (linked to) the Subject (artist) record. For a discussion of how to add sources to the Sources file, see Appendix C: Citations.

  • For a discussion of which sources are considered authoritative as warrant for specific types of artist names, see Names above.

      • Examples
     

3.3.15.4

   

Discussion
The source file is linked to Names, the Descriptive Note, and the Subject (refers to "subject as a whole," used for any information in the record other than Name or Descriptive Note).

  • Sources for names include authoritative publications or museum records. Published and unpublished sources in any and all media may be used. Artist dictionaries and art encyclopedia are sources of many names. Other sources include books on the history of art and architecture, journal articles, newspaper articles, inscriptions on art objects, and catalog records of repositories of art objects.
     

3.3.15.5

   

RULES

  • It is required to cite the sources used for the Name. In the Page Field, it is required to cite the volume, page number, date of accessing a Web site, or other appropriate indication of the specific location where the name was found in the source.

  • If there are multiple editions or multiple publication dates for a source, link to the specific source that you are using.

  • Link to the source only if the name is transcribed exactly as found in that source, including punctuation and capitalization.

    • In specific rare cases, as when the name in the source contradicts ULAN editorial rules (e.g., in the source, the name is in an index represented in all caps, or the source lists a heading instead of a name per se), the source may be linked even though the name entered in ULAN does not match it exactly See instructions at Names above.

  • For rules for constructing Brief and Full Citations, see Appendix C: Citations. The Brief Citation should be a short reference to the source. The Full Citation is full reference to the published or unpublished work.
     

3.3.15.5.1

   

Preferred sources
Published sources of creator names include the following:

    • Library of Congress Authorities. [LCNAF, LC Name Authorities] Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 2002-. http://authorities.loc.gov/
    • Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, 2003-. (1 March 2003) http://www.groveart.com
    • Thieme, Ulrich and Felix Becker, ed. Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Reprint of 1907 edition. 37 vols. Leipzig: Veb E.A. Seemann Verlag, 1980-1986.
    • Bénézit, Emmanuel, ed. Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs. Originally published 1911-1923. Paris: Librairie Gründ, 1976.
    • Macmillan Encyclopedia of Architects. Adolf K. Placzek, ed. New York: Free Press; London: Collier Macmillan, 1982.

  • Additional general encyclopedias and dictionaries of creators may be used. In addition, standard textbooks for art history and Web sites for art museums can serve as sources for names and biographical information about creators. You may also refer to more specialized sources of creator names, including national sources such as the Dizionario enciclopedico Bolaffi dei pittori e degli incisori italiani dall'XI al XX secolo for Italian artists or the Snodgrass American Indian painters for Native American artists. [2]
   

   »How to choose the preferred source

Typically, sources for the preferred name in ULAN should be chosen in the following general order of preference:

  • Standard general reference sources
    • Grove, Thieme-Becker, Bénézit
    • LC Name Authority Headings
    • text books
    • general biographical dictionaries

  • Other official sources
    • repository publications, including catalogues and official Web sites
    • general encyclopedia and dictionaries
    • authoritative Web sites other than museum sites (e.g., university sites)

  • Other sources
    • inscriptions on art objects, coins, or other artifacts
    • journal articles, newspaper articles
    • archives, historical documents, and other original sources
    • authority records of contributors' databases

  • For the preferred name and other information, prefer the most current and authoritative sources to determine which name is currently most commonly used.

    • Know your sources. Thieme-Becker and Bénézit tend to include very long, complete names (and the names may be in German or French instead of English), which thus may not be the preferred name in ULAN (the preferred ULAN name should be the short, commonly used name in English sources). Grove and the indices of text books generally indicate a shorter version of the name.
   

   »Unpublished source

If there is no published source, you may cite an unpublished source, such as an archival document or correspondence with a scholar.

   »Constructed names

Occasionally, names are constructed by the Vocabulary Program in order to create names that conform to certain editorial rules (e.g., for creating display names for names that contain "the elder"or "the younger"). The linked source for such names should be the following:

Brief Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program
Full Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program. Term warranted by consensus of editorial staff.

   

   »Names from a database

If names are taken out of a contributor's database, special citations are used to refer to the database. Generally, these citations are attached when the records are loaded, thus the editors need not be concerned with them. However, if you are doing a special project, entering names by hand that have been derived from a contributors' data base, consult with your supervisor regarding which citation to use to refer to the database. (Note that the Contributor in this situation will be VP, not the contributing project's acronym. See Contributor above.)

      • Example
      • Brief Citation: BHA, Authority file (2003-)
        Full Citation: J. Paul Getty Trust. Bibliography of the History of Art. Authority file. [unpublished database] Los Angeles, 2003-.
       

3.3.15.5.2

   

Citing Sources
Brief rules for citing sources appear below. For detailed instructions for creating citations, see Appendix C: Sources.

      • Examples
      • Brief Citation: Swank, Pennsylvania Germans (1983)
        Full Citation: Swank, Scott T. Arts of the Pennsylvania Germans. 1st ed. New York: Published for the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum by W. W. Norton and Company, 1983.

      • Brief Citation: Grove Art Online (2003-)
        Full Citation: Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, 2003-. (1 March 2003) http://www.groveart.com.
   

   »Full Citations

For the Full Citations, follow The Chicago Manual of Style, 13th edition citation style for the humanities and social sciences. Consult the style sheet in Appendix C.2 for more detailed information.

   »Brief Citations

A brief citation is a shortened form of the full citation, used for display in the ULAN record (e.g. B$00en$00ezit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976); Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Kunstler (1980-1986)). It must be unique so as to accurately identify one particular source from all others, including different works having the same title and different editions of the same work. A brief citation generally consists of the author(s)'/editor(s)' last name(s) (if any), a shortened form of the title that includes enough keywords to indicate what the source is about, and the year of publication in parentheses.

   »No author or editor

If there is no author or editor, record the title as the first element in the Full Citation and Brief Citation.

      • Examples
      • Brief Citation: Anatolian Studies (1951-)
        Full Citation: Anatolian Studies. London: British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 1951-.
   

   »Citing periodical articles

The order of citation elements for articles is the following: author, article title, periodical title, volume, issue number (if any), page number range, and date. Volume and number are expressed in Arabic numerals, even if Roman numerals are used on the work. Since the volume, number and pages are given in the full citation in the source file, the Page field generally should be left blank.

  • Punctuation
    Volume and issue number are separated by a forward slash (/). Pages are preceded by a colon (:).
  • Examples
  • Brief Citation: O'Fahey, Tunjur. Sudan Notes (1980)
    Full Citation: O'Fahey, Sean. "The Tunjur: A central Sudanic mystery" Sudan Notes and Records 61:47-52 (Spring 1980).

  • Brief Citation: Lloyd-Jones, Stately homes of Wales. Architectural Planning Research (1993)
    Full Citation: Lloyd-Jones, Emlyn. "Stately homes of Wales: Their architects and landscapists." Journal of Architectural Planning Research 34/3:18-21 (Fall 1993).

 

   

   »Multi-volume works

For citing articles from multi-volume works, such as encyclopedias, the brief citation consists of a condensed version of the title of the complete work, followed by the date of publication of the complete work, and no URL.

  • In VCS, cite the individual essay or article title, volume and page number in the Page field (see below).

      • Example
      • Brief Citation: Wilkes and Packard, Encyclopedia of Architecture (1989-1990)
        Full Citation: Wilkes, Joseph A. and Robert T. Packard, eds. Encyclopedia of Architecture: Design, Engineering, and Construction. 5 vols. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1989-1990.
        Page: "Apartment buildings, high-rise," 1:219

  • For online encyclopedias, include the URL followed by the date of first access in parentheses at the end of the full citation. Note the article and date of access in the Page Number field (see below).

      • Example
      • Brief Citation: Encyclopedia Britannica Online (1997-2002)
        Full Citation: Encyclopedia Britannica Online (1997-2002). http://www.eb.com (4 March 2002).
     

 

3.3.16

   

Page Number for Name Source (required)

      • Examples

459

12-34

title page

276 ff.

211-213

inscription

6:97

7:89 ff.

folio 21, verso

fiche 2

index

accessed 24 April 1998

map 17

23, note 2

"Four Ming Masters," accessed 9 July 2002

     

3.3.16.1

   

Definition
A reference to the volume (if applicable) and page number where the name was found in the source. It may also include other information describing the precise place in the source where the name was found (e.g., a URL for an online source).

     

3.3.16.2

   

Values
A free-text field; values may be any ASCII character. No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

     

3.3.16.3

   

Discussion
Page Numbers are also discussed under Page Number for Subject Source and Page Number for Descriptive Note Source.

   

 

3.3.16.4

   

RULES

  • Although VCS will allow you to save a record without page numbers, it is required to record them when known.

     

3.3.16.4.1

   

Pages
For pages, do not state "page" or "p." before the numbers. Use the following formats: e.g., 532, 45-53, 12 ff. List the entire number for both numbers in spans of pages (e.g., 691-693, NOT 691-3).

      • Example
      • Brief Citation: Oxford Concise Dictionary of Art and Artists (1996)
        Full Citation: Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists. Ian Chilvers, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
        Page: 150-152
     

3.3.16.4.2

   

Index, etc.
"Page" is assumed unless otherwise stated. Therefore, in printed sources, for any reference to a location other than page, clearly indicate the area of the book, using the syntax in the following examples: title page, index, table of contents, inscription, plate 9, note 132.

      • Example
      • Brief Citation: Martinelli, Bonanno Pisano (1966)
        Full Citation: Martinelli, Valentino. Bonanno Pisano. Milan: Fratelli Fabbri, 1966.
        Page: title

3.3.16.4.3

   

AACR names/LCSH
For names taken from the Library of Congress Name Authority Files, include the NAFL number in the Page field, preceded by "NAFL," and the date on which the site was accessed, as illustrated below.

      • Example
      • Brief Citation: LC Name Authority Headings [online] (2002-)
        Full Citation: "Name Authority Headings." Library of Congress Authorities [online]. 2002-. http://authorities.loc.gov/. (12 August 2003).
        Page: NAFL8479263, accessed 8 June 2004

  • If the name in LCNAF or LCSH contains parentheses, do NOT include them in the ULAN name field. Instead, make the name excluding parentheses the AACR-flagged name, and include the full name with parentheses in the page field. If the second name (implied by the parentheses) is not already in ULAN, add this as a variant; do NOT flag the second name as the "AACR" name. In the example below, LCNAF lists the name in the authorized heading as: Hidley, Joseph H. (Joseph Henry).

      • Example
      • Name: Hidley, Joseph H.
      • Brief Citation: LC Name Authority Headings [online] (2002-)
        Full Citation: "Name Authority Headings." Library of Congress Authorities [online]. 2002-. http://authorities.loc.gov/. (12 August 2003).
        Page: NAFL9222610, as "Hidley, Joseph H. (Joseph Henry)," accessed 18 September 2006

        [second name, interpreted from parenthetical part of the name]
      • Name: Hidley, Joseph Henry

  • If there is no NAFL number, this means it is an old entry for which a full-fledged authority record has not been made; for the Page field, write "from old catalog."

      • Example
      • Brief Citation: LC Name Authority Headings [online] (2002-)
        Full Citation: "Name Authority Headings." Library of Congress Authorities [online]. 2002-. http://authorities.loc.gov/. (12 August 2003).
        Page: from old catalog, accessed 8 June 2004

  • If there is no record for the artist in the Name Authority File, but you have found a name in the Library of Congress Subject Headings, include the verbatim heading and the accessed date in the Page field.

      • Example
      • Brief Citation: Library of Congress Subject Headings (2002-)
        Full Citation: Library of Congress Authorities. Subject Headings (LCSH) [online]. 2002-. http://authorities.loc.gov/ (13 March 2003).
        Page: "Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1475-1564," accessed 8 June 2004

  • For the preferred NAFL name, or if there is no NAF record, for the authoritative heading, flag it with the AACR2 flag set to Yes (see AACR2 Flag below).
     

3.3.16.4.4

   

Multiple pagination schemes
If a source uses multiple schemes of pagination within the same volume, use the numbering convention of the source, even if this means using Roman numerals or other idiosyncratic pagination systems.

     

3.3.16.4.5

   

Folios
In the rare case when the source has folio numbers instead of pages, include recto or verso (e.g., folio 2, verso).

     

3.3.16.4.6

   

Volumes
If a work is published in volumes, include the volume number and page number. Use Arabic numerals, even if the cited volume actually bears Roman numerals. Note that volumes are listed using the following format: volume number, colon (no space), page numbers (e.g., for volume 2, page 311, it would be 2:311).

      • Example
      • Brief Citation: B$00en$00ezit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976)
        Full Citation: B$00en$00ezit, Emmanuel, ed. Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs. Originally published 1911-1923. Paris: Librairie Gr$04und, 1976.
        Page: 2:311
     

3.3.16.4.7

   

Articles
For newspaper and journal articles, the page number should appear in the citation and need not be repeated in the Page field (e.g., in the example below, the Full Citation includes page number "A3," so the Page Number field is empty).

      • Example
      • Brief Citation: Smith, Nicholas Krushenick, New York Times (1999)
        Full Citation: Smith, Roberta. "Nicholas Krushenick, 70, Abstract and Pop Artist." New York Times (7 February 1999), A31.
        Page:
     

3.3.16.4.8

   

Online sources
Record the date when you consulted the Web site in the Page Number field (e.g., accessed 30 March 2001, illustrated below). For newspapers on the web, cite the date of publication in the Full Citation ("10 August 2004" in the example below), not the Page Number field. In the Full Citation, include the designation [online], [online database], [online edition], or a similar phrase if the word online does not appear in the title of the document. You generally do not need to include [online] in the Brief Citation, unless necessary to distinguish between two otherwise identical citations.

      • Examples
      • Brief Citation: Henri Cartier-Bresson, New York Times (2004)
        Full Citation: "Henri Cartier-Bresson Is Dead at 95." New York Times [online] (4 August 2004). http://www.nytimes.com/ (10 August 2004).
        Page: accessed 2 May 2002

      • Brief Citation: London Landscape Guide (2004-)
        Full Citation: Turner, Tom, ed. London Landscape Guide [online]. School of Architecture and Landscape, University of Greenwich. http://www.londonlandscape.gre.ac.uk/lguide/index.htm (14 June 2004).
        Page: accessed 30 March 2001
       

3.3.16.4.9

   

Encyclopedia and dictionaries
If the name was the entry form name in the encyclopedia or dictionary do the following: for hard-copy books cite the volume (if applicable) and page number; for online sources, note the access date.

      • Examples
        [for a hard copy source, volume and page number]
      • Brief Citation: New Encyclopedia Britannica (1988)
        Full Citation: New Encyclop$70aedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1988 printing. 29 vols. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 1988.
        Page: 5:303

        [for an online source]
      • Brief Citation: Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
        Full Citation: Encyclop$70aedia Britannica. Britannica Online. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2002-. http://www.eb.com/ (1 July 2002).
        Page: accessed 2 May 2004

  • If the name you are sourcing is not the entry-form name in the source, in order to unambiguously refer to the entry, do the following:

    • For hard-copy books, include the entry form name, heading, or title of the entry or article, volume number (if applicable), and page number.

    • For online sources, include the entry form name, heading, or title of the entry or article, and access date.

      • Examples
        [for a hard copy source]
      • Brief Citation: Oxford Companion to Art (1996)
        Full Citation: Oxford Companion to Art. Harold Osborne, ed. Melbourne; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
        Page: "Eiffel, Gustave," 367

        [for an online source]
      • Brief Citation: Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002)
        Full Citation: Grove Dictionary of Art (online edition). Jane Turner, ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Ltd., 1999-2002. http://www.groveart.com (3 December 1999).
        Page: "Laurens, Jean-Paul," accessed 5 August 2002
     

3.3.16.4.10

   

When the page number field may be left empty
The Page Number field may be left empty when an article and page are fully cited in the full citation, when the entry-form name in a hard-copy encyclopedia or dictionary entry is the same as the preferred name in a ULAN record, and for references to contributors' databases (unless an access date is applicable) or to the Vocabulary Program's "Term warranted…" reference (below):

      • Brief Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program
        Full Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program. Term warranted by consensus of editorial staff.
        Page:
     

 

3.3.17

   

Preferred Flag for Source (required-default)

     

3.3.17.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating whether or not this name is the preferred form of the name for this person or corporate body in the source.

     

3.3.17.2

   

Values
Controlled by a pick list: P - Preferred, N - Non-preferred, A - Alternate Preferred, U - Unknown

     

3.3.17.3

   

RULES

  • The non-preferred setting is the default for new names created in VCS. Change this flag if necessary, as described below.

  • Preferred: If the name is preferred by the source, mark the name Preferred for that source. There may be only one name preferred by the source per record. A name is preferred by the source when one of the following is true: it is the primary entry in an index, title, or table of contents; it is an entry-form name or title name for an entry or article in a dictionary or encyclopedia; it is the name predominantly used in a text; it is the primary form indicated in an index.

  • Non-Preferred: Flag the name as a non-preferred Name if it is a variant or alternate form of the name for the person or corporate body in that source. Sources may indicate this in various ways, including placing the variant name in parentheses after the preferred name, using a phrase such as "also called" or "also spelled" or the like, or noted with a "see" reference back to the preferred name.

  • Alternate Preferred: Flag the name as an Alternate Preferred name if it is apparently preferred equally by the source, for example, if a source is bilingual and both French and English name forms are treated with equal preference.

  • Unknown: Editors typically should not use this flag, because they should be able to make a judgment regarding the name preferred in the source at hand. This flag is primarily used for data loaded from contributors' systems in which the preference was not captured. Much of the legacy data from the old ULAN system was loaded with Source preference as "Unknown" because this information was not consistently tracked in the old system.
     

 

3.3.18

   

Dates for Names

     

3.3.18.1

   

Definition

  • Dates delimiting the time period when the name was or is still used.
     

3.3.18.2

   

Fields

  • 1. Display Date: A free-text field to express nuances of the date to the user; it is indexed by the two indexing fields representing the Start and End Dates implied in the free-text date.
  • 2. Start Date: The exact or estimated earliest year implied in the Display Date.
  • 3. End Date: The exact of estimated latest year implied in the Display Date.

      • Example
        [from the VCS Subject Edit window]
     

3.3.18.3

   

Values
Display Date is a free-text field; values may be ASCII characters (including numbers). No special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

  • Start Date and End Date must contain valid years, as controlled by VCS.
     

3.3.18.4

   

Sources
The dates should be determined using the same standard reference works that supply other information about the name.

     

3.3.18.5

   

Discussion
There may be a Display Date associated with the name. Although it usually refers to a period or date, the Display Date field may contain notes that do not reference dates per se.

  • Display Dates are indexed with Start Date and End Date. Start and End Dates are controlled by special formatting; dates BCE are represented by negative numbers.
     

3.3.18.6

   

RULES

  • Enter dates for artists' or corporate bodies' names only when the date is significant. If it is simply the name that an artist had for his or her entire life, do not include the date. Examples of significant dates for names include the following:

    • For nicknames or pseudonyms, include dates for the appellation by which an artist was known during a portion of his or her life.

    • For married names, include dates for the period of the marriage. Dates may also be included for any other legal name changes made by the artist.

    • For corporate bodies that have changed their names over time, include dates during which a particular name was used.

  • In the free-text Display Date field, record a phrase referring to a year, a span of years, or period that describes the specific or approximate date in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. Index this free-text date with Start and End Dates delimiting the appropriate span. If the name is still in use to refer to this artist, the end date should be "9999" (not the death date of the artist). The Display Date may contain a note that does not refer to a date per se, but it must still be indexed with Start and End Dates.

  • Dates are not required. However, if you enter data in any of the three date fields, you must enter data in ALL three of the fields.

  • A short set of rules appears below. For further discussion of Dates, see Appendix B.
     

3.3.18.6.1

   

Display Date

   »State only what is known

Where ambiguity exists, use natural word order to clearly state what is known (only what is known; do not surmise). Follow the style of existing Display Dates.

      • Examples
        [for the name "Palmer, Sir James"]
      • Display Date: knighted in 1629
        Start Date: 1629 End Date: 1658

        [for the name "Almanack," in the record for Wouter Crabeth II]
      • Display Date: Crabeth's 'bent-name' given by the Schildersbent
        Start Date: 1623 End Date: 1644

        [for the name "Benozzo di Lese"]
      • Display Date: name used in some documents during his lifetime
        Start Date: 1430 End Date: 1497

        [for the name "Le Corbusier," the name by which he is commonly known]
      • Display Date: pseudonym adopted in 1920
        Start Date: 1920 End Date: 9999

      • [for the name "Raverat, Gwendolen," which is a married name and also the name by which she is today most commonly known]
      • Display Date: married name
        Start Date: 1903 End Date: 9999
   

   »Punctuation

Do not use full sentences; do not end the display date with a period or any other punctuation. If the Display Date could be ambiguous because it contains more than one phrase, separate phrases with a semi-colon for clarity. If you refer to a name, enclose it in quotation marks (if you are using a name to refer to a person, do not use quotation marks).

      • Example
        [for the name "Rembrandt van Rijn"]
      • Display Date: "Rijn" refers to a geographic place, the site of the mill owned by his father in Leyden
        Start Date: 1606 End Date: 9999

        [for the name "Rembrandt"]
      • Display Date: from 1632 onwards he signed his works with only the forename "Rembrandt"; in documents, however, he continued to sign "Rembrandt van Rijn"
        Start Date: 1632 End Date: 9999

        [for the name "Bisschop, Suze"]
      • Display Date: married name; in 1892 she married Richard Bisschop
        Start Date: 1892 End Date: 1922
   

   »Capitalization and abbreviation

Do not capitalize words other than proper nouns or period names. Avoid abbreviations, except with the word circa (ca.), the numbers in century or dynasty designations (e.g., 17th century), and BCE and CE.

   »Calendar in Display Date

Display Dates should generally be listed by reference to years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the calendar produced by extending the Gregorian calendar to dates preceding its official introduction. If indicated in a source, dates may be expressed according to systems other than the proleptic Gregorian calendar (e.g., Julian, Napoleonic, Islamic, or other calendars). This should be clearly designated, also noting the year in the proleptic Gregorian calendar to avoid end-user confusion (e.g., 946 anno Hegirae (1540 CE)). All dates should be indexed in the Start and End Dates using the proleptic Gregorian calendar for consistency in retrieval.

   »Span of years

If a precisely delimited span of dates is applicable, list the beginning year of the span first, followed by the end of the span, with the years separated by a hyphen. Include all digits for both years in a span; for example, with four-digit years, do not abbreviate the second year (e.g., 1924-1946, not 1924-46).

      • Example
        [for the name "Stieglitz, Mrs. Alfred"]
      • Display Date: used 1924-1946
        Start Date: 1924 End Date: 1946

  • Caveat: Do not state specific dates in the Display Date if there is broadly defined information, ambiguity, or uncertainty. For example, instead of 1500-1599, use 16th century if that is what is meant.

 

   

   »BCE in Display Dates

Dates before the year 1 in the proleptic Gregorian calendar should be indicated as Before Common Era, which should be abbreviated BCE. For dates after the year 1, it is generally not necessary to include the designation CE (Current Era) except where confusion may occur. For example, for very early years CE, especially if a span of dates begins BCE and ends CE, include both BCE and CE in the free-text date (e.g., 75 BCE-10 CE). Avoid using BC (Before Christ) or AD (Anno Domini). Dates BCE should be indexed with negative numbers in Start and End Dates (see below).

   »Uncertain dates

If a date is uncertain, use a broad or vague designation (e.g., ancient) or words such as documented, ca., and probably. Note that the first year when a name was documented is not necessarily the year when the name was first used; therefore, you must create a sufficiently early Start Date.

      • Example
        [for the name "Jan van Leyen"]
      • Display Date: meaning "Jan from Leyden," documented in 1503 and probably referring to Jan de Cock
        Start Date: 1490 End Date: 1527

        [for the name "Moncada, Sofonisba de"]
      • Display Date: married name; she married the nobleman Fabrizio de Moncada ca. 1571
        Start Date: 1570 End Date: 1584


   

   »Acceptable scope of information in the Display Date

Ideally, the display date should refer, explicitly or implicitly, to a time period or date. However, the Display Date may be used to record unusual or important information about the name; occasionally, it may not even refer to a date per se. However, given that Start and End dates are required for Display Dates, you should have a period or date in mind when you write the Display Date.

      • Example
        [for the name "Pilgrim, Johann Ulrich"]
      • Display Date: name used in England
        Start Date: 1500 End Date: 1526

        [for the name "Nukaya Shichibei"]
      • Display Date: family name used when an innkeeper, from the mid-1760s
        Start Date: 1763 End Date: 9999
   

   »Dates refer to the name, not to the person or corporate body

Caveat: Note the dates refer to the name itself, not the date of the person or corporate body (life dates would be recorded in Birth and Death Dates). If a name is still used to refer to the person (even when the person is no longer living), the end date is 9999. For names that do not apply to the entire life of the person or corporate body, or, with anonymous artists for names that were invented later, the Start Date for the name may not be the birth date of the artist or corporate body.

     

3.3.18.6.2

   

Start Date and End Date

   »Delimiting the span

Record years that delimit the span of time when the name was in use, as referenced in the Display Date. It is better to delimit the span too broadly than too narrowly.

  • Start Date must represent some year earlier than or equal to End Date.
   

   »Do not use punctuation

Express years without commas or other punctuation. An exception is the hyphen, which is used to express negative numbers (dates BCE).

   »Gregorian calendar

Dates must be expressed in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the Gregorian calendar projected back in time before it came into existence.

   »Month and day

If a specific month and day are referenced in the Display Date, index with the year. For the display date, the preferred syntax is day, month, year with no punctuation. The alternative syntax - month, day, comma, year - is found in many legacy records. Do not bother editing records that already contain this syntax, except in order to make the record consistent when you are editing the record.

      • Example
      • Display Date: married name, from 18 April 1949 until 29 April 1954
        Start Date: 1949 End Date: 1954
   

   »Dates BCE

Express dates BCE with negative numbers, using a hyphen before the number. Do not use commas or any other punctuation.

      • Example
        [for the name "Euemporos"]
      • Display Date: possibly his Greek name
        Start Date: -450 End Date: 9999
   

   »Estimating Start and End Dates

Record the dates for usage of the name, not necessarily dates for the life span of the artist. For a name currently in use, use the End Date 9999. The preferred name should always have End Date 9999. For a name used during the artists' lifetime but not commonly used now to refer to him or her, record the death date for End Date. When in doubt if the name is currently in use, record the End Date 9999.

  • For the Start Date, you may record the birth date of the artist, if appropriate.

      • Example
        [for the name "Phocas, Suzanne," which is a pseudonym, thus indexed with a Start Date later than her birth date]
      • Display Date: pseudonym
        Start Date: 1915 End Date: 9999

    • If a display date is qualified by ca., probably, etc., estimate Start and End Dates accordingly. For example, if ca. applies to the Start Date, subtract five years or so from the display date.

      • Example
        [for the name "Tatoti, Antonio"]
      • Display Date: changed his surname after his arrival in Rome ca. 1656
        Start Date: 1650 End Date: 9999

  • Use biographical information, the dates of art works, and other information to estimate dates.

      • Example
        [for the name "Labille, Ad$00ela$04ide"]
      • Display Date: maiden name, used until her first marriage in 1769
        Start Date: 1749 End Date: 1769
     

 

3.3.19

   

Display Name Flag (required-default)

     

3.3.19.1

   

Definition
Flag designating whether or not the name is to be used in natural order displays or in an alphabetical list.

     

3.3.19.2

   

Values
Controlled by a pick list: I - Index, N - No, NA - Not Applicable, Y - Yes

     

3.3.19.3

   

RULES

  • Not Applicable: The default value for this flag is Not Applicable. Change it if any of the following apply.

  • Yes: If the name is the display name, that is the natural order form of the preferred name, to be used in wall labels and other displays, use the Yes flag. There may be only one name marked Yes per record. See also Constructed Names: Display Name above.

  • Index: If the name is the inverted form that should appear in alphabetical lists and indexes, flag it as Index.

  • No: Do not use this flag unless instructed to do so by your supervisor.

      • Example

   

 

3.3.20

   

AACR Flag (LC heading)

     

3.3.20.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating if the name is the authorized heading in the Library of Congress Subject Headings.

     

3.3.20.2

   

Values
Controlled by a pick list: Y - Yes, NA - Not Applicable

     

3.3.20.3

   

Sources
Library of Congress Authorities. http://authorities.loc.gov/ (do a search in both the Name Authority Headings and the Subject Authority Headings).

     

3.3.20.4

   

Discussion
When the AACR2 flag is used, it means that the name is the authorized form found in an LC heading. The Name in ULAN is NOT the same thing as a heading in LC sources; the "heading" often contains information other than the name.

  • When you search the LC Subject Headings or Name Headings, you will typically retrieve many results. You must figure out which heading is appropriate. In the example below, the authorized heading for Michelangelo Buonarroti is listed as no. 14. Other names in that list are variant names ("references") for this artist or names for another person with a similar name. The life dates and other information will help you decide which is the name you need.

      • Example
     

3.3.20.5

   

RULES

  • If you are creating a new ULAN record from scratch, it is required to look up the name in LC Authorities. However, if you are editing contributed records, searching the LC Authorities is not required (although it is recommended). When editing existing records, look the name up in LC Authorities as time and editorial priorities allow.

  • Not Applicable: The default value for this flag is Not Applicable. Change it if the name is the authorized LC heading.

  • Yes: Flag the name as the AACR2 form if the heading in which you found it is noted as an "authorized heading" on the LC Authorities Web site (note that the AACR2 flag is a misnomer; it really indicates the authorized heading, not simply a name formulated using AACR). There should be one and only one name with the AACR2 flag in each record.

  • The name from the LC Authorized Heading is generally - but not always - the preferred name in ULAN; the preferred name in ULAN is the most commonly used name in scholarly sources in American English.

      • Example
     
   
  • In the Page field, put the LC Control Number for the heading and the date of access (e.g., n 85061125; accessed 1 December 2004). Be sure that you are citing the heading for the person or corporate body itself, not a heading for some other topic that contains the name.

      • Example
     
   
  • If you find other variant names in the full LC Authority Record ("references," or in the 451 field), and those names are not already in ULAN, add them to ULAN, citing the source as Library of Congress Name Authority Headings or Library of Congress Subject Headings, but do not flag the variant LC name as the AACR2 form.
     

 

3.3.21

   

Other Flags

     

3.3.21.1

   

Definition
Flags designating an official name for the person or corporate body.

     

3.3.21.2

   

Values
Controlled by a pick list: O - Official Name, N/A - Not Applicable, P - Pseudonym, B - Birth name

     

3.3.21.3

   

Sources
The official name is generally an inverted full form of the name, including titles. For the official names of people, use standard, general encyclopedias. For the official names of corporate bodies, use the Web site or other official publication of the corporate body, if possible.

     

3.3.21.4

   

RULES

  • Not Applicable: The default value for this flag is Not Applicable. Change it if the name is the official name or pseudonym.

  • Official Name: Use to flag the official name for the person or corporate body, typically used for the long version of the name, including titles (e.g., Baron) for a person or the long version of a corporate body's name .

  • Pseudonym: Use to flag a nickname or pseudonym, such as Masaccio.

  • Birth Name: Use only when an artist has changed his or her name, to flag the name given at birth, a maiden name, or other name by which the artist was originally known (e.g., Mr. is a pseudonym for the artist Masakatu Iwamoto).

      • Example
     

 

3.3.22

   

Assigned To

     

3.3.22.1

   

Definition
Indication of the person assigned to research this name. (Currently not used.)

     

3.3.22.2

   

Values
Free text.

     

3.3.22.3

   

Sources
Editor logins.

     

3.3.22.4

   

RULES

  • Do not use this field unless otherwise instructed by your supervisor.

  • See also Assigned To flag for the entire subject record: Chapter 3-8.
     

 

   

[1]"Required-default" indicates that a default is automatically set, but should be changed by the editor as necessary. Some required-default values are system-generated and may not be edited.

     
   

[2]Dizionario enciclopedico Bolaffi dei pittori e degli incisori italiani dall'XI al XX secolo. Turin: Giulio Bolaffi, 1972-1976. Snodgrass, Jeanne O. American Indian Painters; a Biographical Directory. New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1968.

       

Last updated 26 January 2010
Document is subject to frequent revisions

 




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