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Cultural Objects Name Authority Online
3. Editorial Rules, continued

3

EDITORIAL RULES, CONTINUED

   

3.5

 

Associative Relationships

Included in this chapter

     
    • Example

    • [for a photograph by Julius Shulman]
      Relationship Type: depicts
      Related Work: Pierre Koenig; Case Study House No. 21; house; 1956-1958; steel frame and flat roof deck; 1 story; 1320 square feet; 9036 Wonderland Park Avenue (West Hollywood, Los Angeles, California).

 

3.5.1

 

 

Related Works

     

3.5.1.1

 

 

Definition
Associative relationships to other work records in CONA, including various types of ties or connections between works, but excluding whole/part (hierarchical) relationships.

     

3.5.1.2

 

 

Values
Values to represent the related entity in displays are concatenated automatically by the system, using the preferred name and other information from the linked record.

     

3.5.1.3

 

 

Sources: Warrant for linking the concepts
The same standard general references that are appropriate for the Descriptive Note may be used to determine which works are related. See 3.4 Descriptive Note.

     

3.5.1.4

 

 

Discussion
Link to works that have a direct relationship to the work of art or architecture being cataloged, particularly when the relationship may not be otherwise apparent from other categories. For example, works that are by the same artist or have the same subject need not be listed as related works unless there is a more direct relationship; however, when one of these works is preparatory for another, this special relationship should be recorded. 

  • Ideally, separate records will be made for each related work, and the records will be linked. If the cataloging institution does not hold both objects, it may instead choose to make a reference to the related work in the Descriptive Note, but not a link to a separate record in Related Works.

  • Only clear and direct relationships should be recorded. These direct relationships are typically current, but occasionally may be historical.

  • Given that associative relationship may be used for retrieval, it is recommended not to frivolously make links between Related Works. Relationships should be made only between records that are directly related, but where hierarchical relationships are inappropriate.

      • Examples

      • [for a terrestrial globe]
        Relationship Type: pendant of
        Related Work: Celestial Globe; globe; Nicolas Bailleul le jeune (French, active 1740-1750); 1730; J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles, California, United States); 86.DH.705.2

      • [for an architectural work]
        Relationship Type: depicted in
        Related Work: Pantheon; engraving; design by Giovanni Antonio Dosio (Italian, 1533-after 1609), printmaker Giovanni Battista de'Cavalieri (Italian, ca. 1525-1601); published 1569; in Urbis Romae aedificiorum illustrium quae supersunt reliquiae, Florence (Italy)

      • [for a carpet]
        Relationship Type: mate of
        Related Work: Ardabil Carpet; Maqsud of Kashan (Persian, active mid-16th century); 1540; Victoria and Albert Museum (London, England); 272-1893

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.1.5

 

 

RULES

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.1.5.1

 

 

Minimum requirements
Adding a Related Work is required when necessary, as described under Relationship Type below.

           

3.5.1.5.2

   

When to make Associative Relationships
Make links to Related Works when it is important to the end-user to have a cross-reference to the other works and when the works are directly related to each other but they do not have a hierarchical relationship.

>>Preparatory works

Record all temporal relationships reflected in works that are preparatory for other works, including studies, models, or other works that are steps in the creative process. Examples include a compositional study for a painting and the finished painting, a model for a building and the finished building, or a mold and the bronze sculpture cast from it.

>>Paired works

Record all works that have or were meant to have direct spacial relationships, such as when two or more works were created to hang together as pendants or a pair, for example, the Gilbert Stuart portraits of George and Martha Washington.

>>Reproductive relationships

Record reproductive relationships such as copies after other works, for example, Rubens' copy of Titian's Bacchanal (Prado, Madrid) or George Baxter's nineteenth-century print of Raphael's Descent from the Cross. For photographs, if they are themselves considered works of art, they should also be recorded as Works and linked as related works. Buildings depicted in a work may be recorded as a related work; alternatively, for institutions that do not maintain Work records for built works, the buildings may be recorded in the Subject Authority.

>>Historical relationships

Related Works may be used to record both current and historical relationships, including relationships to lost or destroyed works, such as an original Greek sculpture known only through Roman copies, or a lost model-book that provided the source for an image found in many versions.

>>Indirect relationships

Generally, do not link works that clearly have only indirect (or extrinsic) relationships. Typically, it will be sufficient to discuss these relationships in the Descriptive Note. These indirect relationships include when one work supplies stylistic inspiration for another, for example, the works of Rembrandt and Delacroix inspired Van Gogh, and the dome of the U. S. Capitol Building was inspired by the dome of Saint Peter's in Rome.

  • If one work is depicted in a minor or indirect way in another work, generally do not link them. Consider the benefits in automated retrieval: Will retrieving both objects be meaningful or confusing to end users? For example, if a painting depicts a sculpture among many other objects within the context of a genre scene, it is probably not practical or helpful to link the painting and the sculpture as related works. On the other hand, it is probably useful to link Marcel Duchamp's "visual quotation" of the Mona Lisa to a record for Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, because if users retrieve one, they will often wish to know about both.

      • Examples

      • Relationship Type: depicts
        Related Work:
        Pantheon; unknown Roman, for the Emperor Hadrian (Roman emperor and patron, 76 CE-138 CE, ruled 117-138); 128 CE; Rome (Italy).

      • Relationship Type: preparatory for
        Related Work:
        Urbis Romae aedificiorum illustrium; Giovanni Battista de' Cavalieri (Italian, ca. 1525-1601); published 1569
        Relationship Number: plate 7

      • Relationship Type: based on
        Related Work: Speculum romanae magnificentiae; Lafréry, Antonio (French, 1512-1577); published 1545-1577

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.2

 

 

Relationship Type

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.2.1

 

 

Definition
A phrase characterizing the relationship between the work at hand and the linked concept.

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.2.2

 

 

Values
Values are chosen from a controlled list comprising a code and phrase. Each code-plus-phrase is linked to another code, which is the reciprocal relationship.

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.2.3

 

 

RULES

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.2.3.1

   

Appropriate Relationship Types
It is required to include a Relationship Type for each Related Work.

  • Choose a specific suitable Relationship Type, if possible. Use the broad related to as a default if a specific one is not appropriate.

>> Link to the correct side of the relationship

Remember that Relationship Types are reciprocal (that is, linked to both records). When you choose a Relationship Type, make sure that the Relationship Type and its counterpart will work from the points of view of both linked records. Be very careful!

  • For example, if you are in the record for drawing that is the study for a painting and you want to link to the painting, you should use 4115 / study for. In the painting record, the link to the drawing will then appear as the reciprocal relationship, 4116 / study is.

4115

study for

4116

4116

study is

4115

  • Test: The Relationship Type should make sense in a string or phrase like the following one, where the focus record is the one you are editing and the target record is the one to which you are linking:

Focus Record - Relationship Type - Target Record
drawing - [is] study for - painting

>>Avoid Redundant Relationships

Link a work to another work only once. If multiple relationships apply, choose the predominant or best one.

     

 

     

>> Definitions of Relationship Types

Apply Relationship Types according to the definitions below.

  • For some relationships, the relationship type is the same on both sides of the link; however, for most it is different depending upon which record you are in. Be very careful to choose the correct relationship for the focus record (i.e., the record you are in when you make the relationship). Consider what will make sense when displayed to a user.

  • The relationship type list is extensible and frequently updated.

List of relationship types:


     

4000

related to

4000

4001

miscellaneous

4001

4100

distinguished from

4100

 

 

 

4111

preparatory for

4112

4112

based on

4111

 

 

 

4115

study for

4116

4116

study is

4115

 

 

 

4117

prototype for

4118

4118

prototype is

4117

 

 

 

4121

cartoon for

4122

4122

cartoon is

4121

 

 

 

4125

model for

4126

4126

model is

4125

 

 

 

4131

plan for

4132

4132

plan is

4131

 

 

 

4133

original print

4134

4134

counterproof from

4133

 

 

 

4135

printing plate for

4136

4136

printed from plate

4135

4137

printed from same plate

4137

 

 

 

4211

pendant of

4211

4213

mate of

4213

4215

partner of

4215

4217

member of same set/group

4217

 

 

 

4311

copy after

4312

4312

copy is

4311

 

 

 

4315

facsimile of

4316

4316

facsimile is

4315

 

 

 

4321

derived from

4322

4322

source for

4321

 

 

 

4325

depicts

4326

4326

depicted in

4325

 

 

 

4415

possibly copy of

4416

4416

possibly copy is

4415

 

 

 

4421

probably prototype for

4422

4422

propbably protoype is

4421

 

 

 

4511

formerly associated with

4511

4513

formerly displayed with

4513


 

 

 

 

 

3.5.2.3.2

 

 

Adding new Relationship Types
If you feel that another Relationship Type is required, consult with your supervisor.



 

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.3

 

 

Historical Flag

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.3.1

 

 

Definition
Flag indicating the historical status of the relationship of this Work to the Related Work.

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.3.2

 

 

Values
C - Current, H - Historical, B - Both, N/A - Not Applicable, U - Undetermined

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.3.3

 

 

RULES

  • The default flag for the relationship is Current. If you feel you should use another flag, discuss it with your supervisor.

    • Current: For relationships that still exist, even though they may have been established long ago, use Current.

    • Historical: For a relationship that no longer exists. Do not use this flag without consulting your supervisor.

    • Both: For a relationship that is both current and historical. Do not use this flag without consulting your supervisor.

    • N/A: When Current or Historical are not appropriate to the situation. Do not use this flag without consulting your supervisor.

    • Unknown: This flag is used primarily for data that is loaded into VCS. Do not use this flag without consulting your supervisor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.4

 

 

Dates for Related Works

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.4.1

 

 

Definition
Dates delimiting the relationship between the two works.

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.4.2

 

 

Fields
There are three fields: Display Date, Start Date, and End Date.

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.4.3

 

 

Values
Display Date is a free-text field; values may be any ASCII character; no special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

  • Start Date and End Date must contain valid years, as validated by VCS.

 

 

 

 

 

3.5.4.4

 

 

Sources
The dates should be determined using the same standard reference works that supply other information about the relationship.

 

 

 

3.5.4.5

 

 

Discussion
The Display Date for the relationship usually refers to a period or date, however, it may sometimes contain notes that do not explicitly make reference to a date. In such cases, the note should implicitly refer to a date or datable condition or event, because you are required to include a Start Date and End Date with every Display Date.

  • Display dates are indexed with Start Date and End Date. Start and End Dates are controlled by special formatting; dates BCE are represented by negative numbers.

 

 

 

3.5.4.6

 

 

RULES

  • Dates are not appropriate for most associative relationships in CONA.
    .
  • When dates are appropriate, keep in mind that if you enter data in any of the three fields, you must enter data in ALL three of the fields.

  • The dates appear on reciprocal links. That means that the same dates will appear in BOTH records. Write the Display Dates and assign Start and End Dates so that they will be correct and unambiguous in both records. Repeat the names of the concepts in the Display Date when necessary to avoid ambiguity.
  • A brief set of rules for Dates appears below. See also Appendix B and Dates for Names in Chapter 3.3 Names.

 

 

 

3.5.4.6.1

   

Display Date
A short set of rules appears below. For further discussion of Display Dates, see Appendix B.

  • Follow the style of existing Display Dates.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: pertinent after 1520
        Start Date: 1520 End Date: 9999

      • Display Date: since the mid-18th century
        Start Date: 1730 End Date: 9999

      • Display Date: from the Baroque period
        Start Date: 1590 End Date: 9999

  • Do not use an initial capital, unless the word is a proper name.

  • Do not use full sentences; do not end the display date with a period or any other punctuation.

  • Ideally, the display date should refer, explicitly or implicitly, to a time period or date associated with the link between the Related Concepts.

  • If a date is uncertain, use a broad or vague designation (e.g., ancient) or other terms such as ca. and probably to express uncertainty (e.g., ca., in the example below).

      • Example
      • Display Date: from ca. 1810 through 1940
        Start Date: 1800 End Date: 1940

  • In some cases, the Display Date may be used to record unusual or important information about the Related Concept relationship (see the example below), but not referring explicitly to a date. However, dates should be implicit in the condition or event mentioned and you should have a period or date in mind, because - if you record a Display Date - Start and End dates are required.

      • Example
      • Display Date: pertinent for native inhabitants along the seacoast from Niantic Bay to the Connecticut River
        Start Date: 1400 End Date: 1900
   

 

3.5.4.6.2

   

Start Date and End Date
Use dates that most broadly delimit the span of time of the relationship referred to in the display date. In many cases, the years will be approximate years. When in doubt, it is better to estimate too broad a span rather than too narrow a span. See the Date Authority in Appendix B for approximate dates of historic events and entities.

  • Dates must be expressed in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the Gregorian calendar projected back in time before it came into existence.

  • Express dates BCE by negative numbers, using a hyphen before the number. Do not use commas or any other punctuation.

      • Example
      • Display Date: only as related to Banshan urns
        Start Date: -2800 End Date: -2300

  • For current relationships, use the End Date 9999.

      • Example
      • Display Date: from 1810
        Start Date: 1810 End Date: 9999

  • For very ancient dates, expressed as years ago or before present in the Display Date, translate these dates into approximate years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar for the Start and End Dates.
   

 

Last updated 21 September 2010
Document is subject to frequent revisions

 




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