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4. Appendices, continued






Appendix C: Sources

Citations for Sources: This chapter includes rules for recording citations for sources, which are found in the Sources authority file. In a vocabulary subject record, the source for a name/term, scope/descriptive note, or the overall record, is linked to the appropriate source record in the Source authority.

As of this writing, each Getty vocabulary has its own Source authority. Although Vocabulary Program editors attempt to keep similar sources in sync across the Source authorities, the source_ids are not in sync. It is anticipated that the four Source authorities will in the future be harmonized and merged.

Page Number: Also included are rules for recording the page number or other reference indicating where in the cited source was the information found. The Page field is found in the subject record in VCS. The Page field concerns the relationship of the data field in the VCS subject record, as it is linked to the source record in the source authority. Each page field is a free text field.






How to Record Sources

If a required citation is not already included in the Source authority, create a citation for the source.

Sources include published bibliographic materials, Web sites, archival documents, unpublished manuscripts, inscriptions on the work, and references to verbal opinions expressed by scholars or subject experts.

Citations establish the credibility of the information; it is possible to link citations to the titles/names, descriptive note, and the overall record for each VCS concept. These citations are maintained in an authority, described in this chapter.



Preferred Sources
For rules regarding which sources should be used for a specific field, see the pertinent chapter in the guidelines. Prefer the most authoritative, up-to-date source available. Sources of information in the VCS record may include the following:

  • Standard reference sources
    • major dictionaries and encyclopedia covering the topics of art and architecture or other appropriate specialized topic (e.g., geography, chemistry, etc.)
    • Online databases and other authoritative online resources
  • Other authoritative sources
    • official catalogs or Web sites of the repositories of art works
    • databases of contributors, with preference given to contributors who are also repositories
    • art history text books
    • monographs on an artist or books on various periods of art history
    • art history journal articles
  • Other material on pertinent topics
    • newspaper articles
    • archives and historical documents
    • university Web sites



Recording Citations
If the source is not already in the Source Authority, construct a Brief Citation and a Full Citation for the source. The system will automatically assign a numeric Source ID for the source.

  • Citations must be unique
    The Brief and Full Citations must be unique within the VCS database. As of this writing, each VCS database has a separate Sources authority file.

    Before creating citations, carefully search the database to be sure that yours is unique. If the citation is used in another Getty vocabulary, copy the existing citation or edit them both (or all four) so that all instances of citations for the same source are identical.

    If there are multiple editions or multiple publication dates for a source, each edition and versions with separate years of publication are recorded in separate Source records.



Source fields

  • Example



Source ID
Unique numeric identifier for the source. The Source ID is automatically assigned by VCS when the source is created. It may not be edited.





Merged Status
Flag indicating if the Source has been merged or not. It is automatically set by VCS and may not be edited.





Internal Note
Editor note discussing problems or issues regarding this source.





Bibliographic Note
Contains information from contributed data that could not be correctly mapped to VCS fields, but which may be used by the editors to create valid citations.





Brief Citation
A concise reference to the source. A Brief Citation should be short, succinct, and readable at a glance. It should identify the source as unique from all other sources. Note that it must distinguish a particular published work or edition of a published work from similar works and other editions of the same work.





Full Citations
A complete citation for the work, following the citation style for the humanities and social sciences in the Chicago Manual of Style, 13th ed. [1]





Page Field
Volume and page for the source (e.g., 11:342) as it refers to a particular name or other field in the VCS record. The Page field is located in the VCS concept record, not in the Source Authority.

  • Example











Rules for Sources


Sources for the citation
Find the information to construct a citation on the title page of the work.

If you do not have the work in hand, look up the citation in the Getty Library Catalog or another reliable source; reformat information in that citation to accord with Vocabulary Program rules as necessary.


Record the citations in English, except for the title, if warranted.

Record proper names and the title in the language of the title page. Use diacritics as necessary; use Unicode or express diacritics using the diacritical codes in Appendix A: Diacritics.

  • Examples
  • Brief: B$00en$00ezit Dictionary of Artists: English Edition (2006)
    Full: B$00en$00ezit, Emmanuel. B$00en$00ezit Dictionary of Artists: English Edition. Originally published in French, in 1911. Paris: Gr$04und, 2006.


Syntax and Capitalization for Brief Citation
In general, construct a Brief Citation by condensing the Full Citation, using the following elements: Author's last name (if applicable), comma, brief title, comma, year of publication in parentheses.

Use title case (not sentence case).

Avoid abbreviations except for common abbreviations that are already established in the database. If you wish to use a new abbreviation, consult with your supervisor.

  • Examples
  • Grove Art Online (2003-)
  • Fazio et al., World History of Architecture (2014)
  • Metropolitan Museum of Art, Art of Medieval Spain (1993)
  • J. Paul Getty Museum, collections online (2000-)
  • Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Kunstler (1980-1986)
  • B$00en$00ezit, Dictionnaire des Peintres (1976)
  • Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
  • Library of Congress Authorities [online] (2002-)
  • Gardner's Art Through the Ages (1986)
  • Beazley, Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters (1984)
  • Cotter, Norman Bluhm, New York Times (1999)
  • Bogel, Canonizing Kannon, The Art Bulletin (2002)
  • MFA Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online (2005-)


Syntax for Full Citation
In general, construct a Full Citation using the following elements: 1) author name in inverted order where applicable, period; 2) title, period; 3) site of publication, colon; 4) publisher, comma, 5) date of publication, period.

Use title case.

Avoid abbreviations other than ed. (edition or editor) and vol. (volumes), other than when part of a proper name.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Boardman, Greek Art (1996)
    Full: Boardman, John. Greek Art. 3rd ed. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1996.

  • Brief: Wilkes and Packard, Encyclopedia of Architecture (1989-1990)
    Full: Wilkes. Joseph A., and Robert T. Packard, eds. Encyclopedia of Architecture: Design, Engineering, and Construction. 5 vols. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1989-1990.

  • Brief: Oxford Concise Dictionary of Art and Artists (1996)
    Full: Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists. Ian Chilvers, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.


Author's name
Record the author as the first element in the Full and Brief Citations. The author may be a person or a corporate body. For a person, record the name in inverted order (last name first) in the Full Citation. For a corporate body, record the name in natural order.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Cole, Sienese Painting (1980)
    Full: Cole, Bruce. Sienese Painting: From Its Origins to the Fifteenth Century. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.

  • Brief: University of Pennsylvania, African Sculpture (1986)
    Full: University of Pennsylvania. University Museum. African Sculpture from the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, distributed by the University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986.

Include punctuation (e.g., hyphens) and diacritics as appropriate. For initials, include periods after the initial and a space between two initials.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Janson, History of Art (1971)
    Full: Janson, H. W. History of Art. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1971.

  • Brief: Pope-Hennessy, Raphael (1970)
    Full: Pope-Hennessy, John. Raphael. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1970.


Multiple authors
If there are multiple authors, in the Full Citation, record the first author's name in inverted order and the subsequent names in natural order.

Use the word "and" and commas to separate the names of authors.

List the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page.

In the Brief Citation, if there are more than two authors, record the last name of the first author and "et al".

  • Examples
  • Brief: Adkins and Adkins, Thesaurus of British Archaeology (1982)
    Full: Adkins, Lesley and Roy A. Adkins. Thesaurus of British Archaeology. Newton Abbot, England: David & Charles, 1982.

  • Brief: Trubner et al., Asiatic Art (1973)
    Full: Trubner, Henry, William J. Rathbun, and Catherine A. Kaput. Asiatic Art in the Seattle Art Museum. Seattle: Seattle Art Museum, 1973.

If a second author revised or added to the original work, note this after the title.

  • Example
  • Brief: Smith, Egypt (1981)
    Full: Smith, W. Stevenson. Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt. 2nd ed., revised with additions by William Kelly Simpson. Pelican History of Art. New Haven and New York: Yale University Press, 1981.

If there are more than three authors, list the first name followed by "et al" rather than listing them all.

  • Example
  • Brief: Fedje et al., Vermilion Lakes Site, American Antiquity (1995)
    Full: Fedje, Daryl W., et al. "Vermilion Lakes Site: Adaptations and Environments in the Canadian Rockies During the Latest Pleistocene and Early Holocene." American Antiquity 60/1:81-108 (1995).


If there is no author and the editor has played a major role -- as indicated by the placement of his or her name on the title page -- as the first element in the Full Citation record the editor's name in inverted order, comma, and the abbreviation "ed."

Include the editor's last name in the Brief Citation in the same way that the author's name would be listed.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Gordon, Architectural Design (1986)
    Full: Gordon, Yvonne, ed. Architectural Design and CAD. New York: Nichols Publishing Co., 1986.

  • Brief: Theories and manifestoes of contemporary architecture (1997)
    Full: Theories and manifestoes of contemporary architecture. Charles Jencks and Karl Kropf, eds. Chichester, England: Academy Editions; Lanham, MD: Distributed to the trade in the United States by National Book Network, 1997.

If the editor has not played a major role in writing the work, include the name in natural order using syntax as illustrated below. Generally abbreviate editor as "ed." If there is both an editor and an edition statement, spell out editor to avoid confusion (because edition will also be abbreviated "ed.").

  • Examples
  • Brief: Bagrow, History of Cartography (1985)
    Full: Bagrow, Leo. History of Cartography. 2nd ed. Chicago: Precedent Publishing, 1985.

    [edition, no editor]
  • Brief: Smithells, Metals (1992)
    Full: Smithells, Colin J. Smithells Metals Reference Book. 7th ed. Edited by Eric A. Brandes and G. B. Brook. Boston, Massachusetts: Butterworth Heinemann, 1992.


Both author and editor
If the title page includes both the author and an editor, include them both in the Full Citation. Record "Edited by" with the editor name in natural order after the title and the edition number (if any).

  • Example
  • Brief: Fletcher, History of Architecture (1987)
    Full: Fletcher, Banister, Sir. History of Architecture. 19th ed. Edited by John Mangrove. London: Butterworths, 1987.


No author or editor
If there is no author or editor, record the title as the first element in the Full Citation and Brief Citation.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Times Atlas of the World (1999)
    Full: Times Atlas of the World. 10th comprehensive ed. New York: Times Books, 1999.

  • Brief: Columbus, Architecture (1980)
    Full: Columbus Indiana: A Look at Architecture. Columbus, Indiana: Columbus Area Chamber of Commerce, 1980.


For books, record the title in title case (not sentence case). For journal and newspaper articles, see Periodicals below.

  • In the Full Citation, record the full title as it appears on the title page, but generally omit the initial articles (e.g., The) unless it is necessary to retain meaning (e.g., the "A" in Columbus Indiana: A Look at Architecture). Include subtitles if they are necessary to identify the work or aid the user in identifying the content of the work. In the Brief Citation, create a truncated title containing the most important words of the title.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Smith, Blacksmiths' and Farriers' Tools (1966)
    Full: Smith, H. R. Bradley. Blacksmiths' and Farriers' Tools at the Shelburne Museum. Shelburne, Vermont: Shelburne Museum, 1966.

  • Brief: Gere and Pouncey, Italian Drawings: Artists Working in Parma (1967)
    Full: Gere, J. A. and P. Pouncey. Italian Drawings in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum: Artists Working in Parma in the Sixteenth Century. London: British Museum Publications, 1967.


Foreign-language titles
For titles in languages other than English, follow the conventions for capitalization of the given language.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Bauchal, Nouveau dictionnaire des architectes (1887)
    Full: Bauchal, Charles. Nouveau dictionnaire biographique et critique des architectes fran$05cais. Paris: Andr$00e, Daly fils et cie, 1887.

  • Brief: Enciclopedia Unversale Garzanti (1982)
    Full: La nuova enciclopedia universale Garzanti. Milan: Garzanti, 1982.


No title
If there is no apparent title, construct one. This happens most often with commercial sales catalogs, Web sites, and in-house unpublished authority lists.

Take keywords for a title from the cover or inside page of the catalog or authority list or from the top of the web home page. If there is little or no information on the item itself (as happens sometimes with unpublished authority lists), devise a title from information that you know about the item, such as the institution it came from and the year of preparation. Consult with your supervisor when devising such a title.

  • Example
    Brief: Mystic Seaport Museum term list (1989)
    Full: Mystic Seaport Museum. Term list. Document prepared for internal distribution. Mystic, Connecticut: Mystic Seaport Museum, 1989.


Publisher and Date
As the last elements in the Full Citation, record the city of publication, publisher, and date of publication.

  • If the city will not be extremely well known to an international audience, include the name of the state or nation. Do not abbreviate any place name, unless it is extremely well known internationally (e.g., Anaheim, California NOT Anaheim, CA).

Generally, do not include the publisher in the Brief Citation.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Lobley, Mount Vesuvius (1889)
    Full: Lobley, J. Logan. Mount Vesuvius: A Descriptive, Historical, and Geological Account of the Volcano and Its Surroundings. London: Roper and Drowley, 1889.

  • Brief: Boylan, Dictionary of Irish Biography (1999)
    Full: Boylan, Harry. Dictionary of Irish Biography. 3rd ed. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1999.

Record the publisher in the language of the title page. Record the city of publication in English (if there is an English version of the place name).

  • Example
  • Brief: TCI: Friuli-Venezia Guilia (1982)
    Full: Friuli-Venezia Guilia. 5th ed. Guida d'Italia del Touring Club Italiano. Milan: Touring Club Italiano, 1982.


Multiple publishers
If there are multiple publishers, list them in the Full Citation, separated by semi-colons. If a work is published in association with another institution, state use the phrase in association with or for, depending upon how it is phrased on the title page.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Abel-Vidor, Precomlumbian Art of Costa Rica (1981)
    Full: Abel-Vidor, Suzanne, Ronald L. Bishop, et al. Between Continents/Between Seas: Precolumbian Art of Costa Rica. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. in association with The Detroit Institute of Arts, 1981.

  • Brief: Karnack, Art of the Medieval World (1975)
    Full: Karnack, George. Art of the Medieval World. H. W. Jansen, ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.; New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1975.

  • Brief: Montgomery and Kane, American Art, 1750-1800 (1976)
    Full: Montgomery, Charles F. and Patricia Kane, eds. American Art, 1750-1800: Towards Independence. Boston: New York Graphics Society for the Yale University Art Gallery and the Victoria and Albert Museum, 1976.


Multiple places of publication
If there are multiple places of publication, include them in the Full Citation.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Slive, Jacob van Ruisdael Catalogue (2001)
    Full: Slive, Seymour. Jacob van Ruisdael: Complete Catalogue of His Paintings, Drawings and Etchings. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2001.

  • Brief: Paula M$94ordersohn Becker Exhibition (1999)
    Full: Paula M$94ordersohn Becker: An Exhibition. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Art Gallery. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1999.


Date of publication
Record the date as the last element of the Brief and Full Citations. In the Brief Citation, enclose the date in parentheses.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Bartholomew Gazetteer of Britain (1986)
  • Full: Bartholomew Gazetteer of Britain. Compiled by Oliver Mason. Edinburgh: John Bartholomew and Son Ltd., 1986.

Range of dates: If a work was published over a range of years, include the years, separated by a hyphen/dash. Do not omit numbers in the second year of the range (e.g., 1953-1988, not 1953-88). If a work is an ongoing publication, use the first year of publication followed by a hyphen/dash.

  • Examples
  • Brief: New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967-1989)
    Full: Catholic University of America. New Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Publishers Guild in association with McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1967-1979.

  • Brief Citation: Anatolian Studies (1951-)
    Full Citation: Anatolian Studies. London: British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 1951-.

Uncertain date: If the date is not found on the title page but you have a good idea of when the work was probably published, use ca. as appropriate. If only the decade is certain, use a date such as 1930s.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Sears & Roebuck. Sales Catalogue (ca. 1890)
    Full: Sears & Roebuck Co. Retail catalogue. Chicago: Sears and Roebuck Co., ca. 1890.

  • Brief: Smithson, Eye of the Collector (1930s)
    Full: Smithson, Janet. Eye of the Collector. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1930s.

No date: If an accurate or approximate date cannot be determined, use n.d., for "no date."

  • Example
  • Brief: Von Ribbontropf, Futurist Artists (n.d.)
    Full: Von Ribbontropf, Dietrich. Last Generation of Futurist Artists. Berlin and Amsterdam: Pflicht Verlag, n.d.


If an edition statement is on the title page, include it in the Full Citation. Place it directly after the title. Use Arabic numerals for numbered editions and the abbreviation ed. for edition (e.g., 7th ed.).

  • Example
  • Brief: W$04offlin, Principles of Art History (1950)
    Full: W$04offlin, Heinrich. Principles of Art History. 7th ed. New York: Dover Publications, Inc, 1950.

Generally, omit edition statements from the Brief Citations, unless it is necessary to distinguish between editions produced in the same year.

If the citation has both an edition statement and an editor, do not abbreviate editor as "ed."

  • Example
  • Brief: Library Binding Institute Standard for Library Binding (1986)
    Full: Library Binding Institute. Library Binding Institute Standard for Library Binding. 8th ed. Edited by Paul A. Parisi and Jan Merrill-Oldham. Rochester, NY: Library Binding Institute, 1986.

For a named edition, spell out edition if it is necessary to avoid confusion. Generally do not abbreviate revised, enlarged; translated, or other such words in the edition statement; spell them out.

  • Example
  • Brief: Pevsner, Dictionary of Architecture (1976)
    Full: Pevsner, Nikolaus, et al. Dictionary of Architecture. Revised and enlarged ed. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 1976.


If a work is a reprint, include this information in the Full Citation. Include the date of the reprint in the Brief Citation (not the date of the original publication).

  • Example
  • Brief: Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon (1980-1986)
    Full: Thieme, Ulrich and Felix Becker. Allgemeines -Lexikon der bildenden K$04unstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Reprint of 1907 edition. 37 vols. Leipzig: Veb E. A. Seemann Verlag, 1980-1986.

Generally, omit the reference to the reprint in the Brief Citation, unless it is necessary to distinguish between versions produced in the same year.

  • Example
  • Brief: Times Atlas of the World (2014)
    Full: Times Atlas of the World. 14th ed. New York: Times Books, 2014.

  • Brief: Times Atlas of the World, Reprinted (1994)
    Full: Times Atlas of the World. 9th comprehensive ed. Reprinted with revisions 1994. New York: Times Books, 1994.


For encyclopedia and other sets, in the Full Citation, include the number of volumes in the set, if known. Record the number plus vols. after the title.

  • Example
  • Brief: Athenian Agora (1953-1988)
    Full: American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Athenian Agora. 24 vols. Princeton, New Jersey: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1953-1988.

Generally, record references to a single volume in the Page field (see above).


If there is a separate title or author for a chapter or essay in a collected work, generally record a separate citation for the essay or chapter.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Zelinsky-Cartledge and Cartledge, AIlto and Arba, Ethiopia: Traditions of Creativity (1999)
    Full: Zelinsky-Cartledge, Mary Ann and Daniel M. Cartledge. "AIlto and Arba: Two Doko Weavers," in Ethiopia: Traditions of Creativity, Raymond Silverman, ed. East Lansing: Michigan State University Museum in association with the University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1999, 240-256.

  • Brief: Pignatelli inventory, Naples (1723)
    Full: "Giovanna d'Aragona Pignatelli, Duchessa di Terranova e Monteleone, inventory, 1723," in Labrot, G$00erard and Provenance Index of the Getty Art History Information Program. Collections of Paintings in Naples 1600-1780. Documents for the History of Collecting: Italian Inventories 1. Carol Togneri Dowd and Anna Cera Sones, eds. Munich and New York: K.G. Saur, 1992.

For an encyclopedia, it is generally not necessary to refer to the author or title of an entry or essay. However, if it will not be immediately apparent to the user how to find the cited information in the source, include a reference to the title of the entry in the Page field (not in the Full Citation).

  • Example
  • Brief: Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
    Full: Encyclop$70aedia Britannica. Britannica Online. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2002-. (1 July 2002).
    Page field: "Medici, Cosimo de'," accessed 13 February 2002.


If a work was part of a series, include the name of the series in the Full Citation. Make a brief reference to the series in the Brief Citation.

  • Example
  • Brief: Longstreth, Washington Mall, Studies in History of Art (1991)
    Full: Richard Longstreth, ed. Mall in Washington, 1791-1991. Studies in the History of Art, no. 30; Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts: Symposium Papers XIV. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1991; distributed by University Press of New England.


Electronic media
For books and databases on eletronic media, including CDs and DVDs, record Brief and Full Citations using the same rules as for books. Use information on the jacket of the disk, accompanying brochures, or a digital title page.

  • Example
  • Brief: USGS, GNIS Digital Gazetteer (1994)
    Full: United States Department of the Interior and U.S. Geological Survey. Geographic Names Information System Digital Gazetteer. Reston, Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey, 1994.


Exhibition catalogs
If it is not clear from the title that the book is an exhibition catalog, include the words "exhibition catalog" in square brackets in the full citation.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Eight Sculptors (1979)
    Full: Albright-Knox Art Gallery. Eight Sculptors: An Exhibition. Buffalo, New York: Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 1979.

  • Brief: Schimmel et al., Public Offerings (2001)
    Full: Schimmel, Paul, et al. Public Offerings [exhibition catalog]. New York: Thames & Hudson. Los Angeles: Museum of Contemporary Art, 2001.

If it is not clear from the title or place of publication where the exhibitions took place, include the places of the exhibition after the title in the full citation.

  • Brief: Poulet, Jean-Antoine Houdon (2003)
    Full: Poulet, Anne, et al. Jean-Antoine Houdon: Sculptor of the Enlightenment [exhibition catalog]. National Gallery of Art, Washington; J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles; Mus$00ee et domaine national du ch$03ateau de Versailles, Versailles. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.


Auction catalogs
If it is not clear from the title that the book is an auction catalog, include the words "auction catalog" in square brackets in the full citation. Include the date of the sale in after the title, if it is not part of the title itself.

  • Examples
  • Brief: H$03otel Drouot, Bronzes de Barye (1892)
    Full: H$03otel Drouot, Bronzes de Barye, 14 March 1892 [auction catalog]. Paris: H$03otel Drouot, 1892.

  • Brief: Sotheby Parke Bernet, 18th and 19th century American Furniture (1972)
    Full: Sotheby Parke Bernet, 18th and 19th century American Furniture, 29 January 1972 [auction catalog]. New York: Sotheby Parke Bernet Inc., 1972.


For articles in journals, periodicals, and newspapers, in the Full Citation include the following: author's name inverted (if known), article name in quotation marks, journal name, volume and issue number (if applicable, separated with forward slash), date of publication in parentheses, colon, and page number. Follow the syntax in the examples below. Year, month, and day of publication may be included.

Note that the inclusion of the page number for articles differs from books, where the page number would be recorded in the Page field in the subject record.

In the Brief Citation, include author, title of the article (no quotation marks), reference to the journal or newspaper, year of publication. Use abbreviations for journals only when they are extremely well known and the title is very long (e.g., JASIS).

  • Examples
  • Brief: Gwin, Tombs of Peru's Cloud People, National Geographic (2004)
    Full: Gwin, Peter. "Tombs of Peru's Cloud People." National Geographic Magazine 205/6 (2004): 56 ff.

  • Brief: Hong Kong, New York Times (1997)
    Full: "China Resumes Control of Hong Kong, Ending 156 Years of British Rule." New York Times (July 1, 1997): A1, A6.

For an online article, include the date when the article was accessed and the URL, as explained in Online Sources below.

  • Example
  • Brief: Kuke, Kinshasa, Washington Post (1997)
    Full: Kuke, Lynne. "Victorious Rebels Pour into Kinshasa." Washington Post [online edition]. http:// (May 19, 1997).

For a book review in a journal, include the name of the reviewer, the name of the article, and the name of the journal.

  • Example
  • Brief: Garstang, Il Castello di Rivoli, Apollo (1986)
    Full: Garstang, Donald. "Il Castello di Rivoli, 1734-1984 and Botteghe e Negozi," in Book Reviews. Apollo 125/287 (1986): 68.


Citing an entire periodical
In some cases, sources from contributors do not have the name of the article, but only the name of the journal. In such cases, make a citation for the entire journal.

  • Example
  • Brief: African Arts (1967-)
    Full: African Arts. Los Angeles: James S. Coleman African Studies Center, University of California, 1967-.


Sometimes a periodical issues an extra edition or supplement to an issue. In such cases, state the words supplement or extra edition after the periodical title.

  • Example
  • Brief: Concepcion, Designing single units, Architecture and Urbanism (1987)
    Full: Concepcion, Immaculata. "Designing single units for double occupancy." Architecture and Urbanism, extra edition no. 5 (May 1987)


Online Sources
For sources on the Web, make the Full Citation as complete as possible. Follow the rules for book citations, including the following information where possible: author's inverted name, full title of the work, city of publication and publisher (if known), date of the document or last revision (if known). Also record the URL followed by the date that it was first accessed, in parentheses.

If the date is not on the home page of the site, check the source code for the page. In the Full Citation, include the designation [online], [online database], [online edition], or a similar phrase if the word online does not appear in the title of the document. You generally do not need to include [online] in the Brief Citation, unless it is necessary to distinguish between two otherwise identical citations.

  • Examples
  • Brief: Degl'Innocenti, Il Ratto Delle Sabine Va Agli Uffizi (2014)
    Full: Degl'Innocenti, Cristina. "Il 'Ratto Delle Sabine' Va Agli Uffizi. Firenze E Sempre Meno Museo All'aperto." Firenze Post [online edition] (14 November 2014).

  • Brief: NGA, GEOnet Names Server (2004-)
    Full: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). GEOnet Names Server (GNS) [online database; formerly NIMA]. Washington: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, 2004-. (1 September 2004).

  • Brief: Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
    Full: Encyclop$70aedia Britannica. Britannica Online. Chicago: Encyclop$70aedia Britannica, Inc., 2002-. (1 July 2002).

  • Brief: Saxon, Morris Kriensky: Wartime Map Maker, New York Times (1998)
    Full: Saxon, Wolfgang. "Morris Kriensky, 80: Wartime Map Maker." New York Times [online edition]. (23 February 1998).

  • Brief: Reuters, Island off Sicily, CNN (2002)
    Full: Reuters. "Hidden island off Sicily may reappear." CNN, 12 June 2002. [online] (03 December 2002).


Unpublished sources
For databases, telephone conversations, correspondence, or other sources that are not published, construct Brief and Full Citations. Include an explanation of the source, as necessary (e.g., Unpublished database).

  • Examples
  • Brief: BHA, Authority file (2003-)
    Full: J. Paul Getty Trust. Bibliography of the History of Art. Authority file. Unpublished database. Los Angeles: BHA, 2003-.

  • Brief: Getty Vocabulary Program rules
    Full: Getty Vocabulary Program. Information warranted by Editorial Guidelines.

  • Brief: Smith, Dutch Double and Pair Portrait (1978)
    Full: Smith, David R. The Dutch Double and Pair Portrait: Studies in the Imagery of Marriage in the Seventeenth Century. Ph.D. dissertation. New York: Columbia University, 1978.

  • Brief: San Domenico, Morti (1336-1594)
    Full: San Domenico: Morti dal 1336 al 1594. Unpublished manuscript. Siena: Biblioteca Comunale, 1336-1594.

  • Brief: Embassy of Micronesia, Maps (1995)
    Full: Embassy of Micronesia. Per letter and enclosed maps from Enrico Calderon, dated 21 January 1995.

  • Brief: Newton County Courthouse, Missouri (1997)
    Full: Newton County Courthouse, Neosho, Missouri. Per telephone conversation with the office of the County Clerk on 9 September 1997.

  • Brief: Embassy of Bosnia Herzegovina (1997)
    Full: Embassy of Bosnia Herzegovina. Per e-mail correspondence with Malik Skaljic, 5 and 7 May 1997.




How to record Page and other references

The Page Number field in the vocabulary subject record records not only page numbers per se, but all references to a specific location within a source where the term/name or other information was found.


For pages, do not state "page" or "p." before the numbers. Use the following formats: e.g., 532, 45-53, 12 ff. List the entire number for both numbers in spans of pages (e.g., 691-693, not 691-3).

  • Example
  • Brief Citation: Janson, History of Art (1997)
    Full Citation: Janson, H. W., and Janson, Anthony F. History of Art. 5th revised ed. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1997.
    Page: 150-152


Glossaries, indexes, etc.
"Page" is assumed unless otherwise stated. Therefore, in printed sources, for any reference to a location other than page, clearly indicate the area of the book, using the syntax in the following examples: glossary, title page, index, table of contents, inscription, plate 9, note 132.

  • Example
  • Brief Citation: Xydis, Chancel Barrier of Hagia Sophia (1947)
    Full Citation: Xydis, Stephen G. "The Chancel Barrier, Solea, and Ambo of Hagia Sophia." Art Bulletin 29/1 (Mar. 1947): 1-24.
    Page: title


Library of Congress Authorities reference
Called the AACR2 flag. For titles of art works taken from the Library of Congress Authorities and flagged with AACR2 flag set to Yes (see AACR2 Flag below), include the full heading in the Page field and the date on which the site was accessed.

  • Example
  • Brief Citation: LC Subject Authority Headings [online] (2002-)
    Full Citation: "Subject Authority Headings." Library of Congress Authorities [online]. 2002-. (17 March 2003).
    Page: n 95048956; accessed 10 August 2010


Multiple pagination schemes
If a source uses multiple schemes of pagination within the same volume, use the numbering convention of the source, even if this means using Roman numerals or other idiosyncratic pagination systems.

  • Example
  • Brief Citation: Derby & Co., Furniture Catalog (1915)
    Full Citation: Derby and Company. Furniture Catalog. Boston, Massachusetts: Derby & Co., 1915.
    Page: plate xvi


In the rare case when the source has folio numbers instead of pages, include recto or verso (e.g., folio 2, verso).


If a publication is published in volumes, include the volume number and page number. Use Arabic numerals, even if the cited volume actually bears Roman numerals. Note that volumes are listed using the following format: volume number, colon, page numbers (e.g., for volume 3, page 568, it would be 3:568).

  • Example
  • Brief Citation: New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967-1979)
    Full Citation: Catholic University of America. New Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Publishers Guild in association with McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1967-1979. 17 vols.
    Page: 3:568


For newspaper and journal articles, the page number should appear in the Full Citation and need not be repeated in the Page field (e.g., in the example below, the Full Citation includes page number "A3," so the Page Number field is empty).

  • Example
  • Brief Citation: Cotter, Buddhas of Bamiyan, New York Times (2001)
    Full Citation: Cotter, Holland. "Buddhas of Bamiyan: Keys to Asian History." New York Times (3 March 2001), A3.


Online sources
Record the date when you consulted the web site in the Page field (e.g., accessed 2 May 2010, illustrated below). For newspapers on the web, cite the date of publication in the Full Citation ("4 April 2002" in the example below), not the Page field. In the Full Citation, include the designation [online], [online database], [online edition], or a similar phrase if the word online does not appear in the title of the document. You generally do not need to include [online] in the Brief Citation, unless necessary to distinguish between two otherwise identical citations.

  • Examples
  • Brief Citation: Seized towns, New York Times (2002)
    Full Citation: Agence France-Presse. "Seized Towns: Nablus Makes 8." New York Times [online] (4 April 2002). (10 April 2002).
    Page: accessed 2 May 20010

  • Brief Citation: Jones, Anzick Site (1997)
    Full Citation: Jones, J. Scott. " Anzick Site: Analysis of a Clovis Burial Assemblage." Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University, Department of Anthropology, 1997. [online]. (1 July 1999).
    Page: accessed 30 March 2010


Encyclopedia and dictionaries
If the title was the entry form title in the encyclopedia or dictionary do the following: for hard-copy books cite the volume (if applicable) and page number; for online sources, note the access date.

  • Examples
    [for a hard copy source, volume and page number ]
  • Brief Citation: New Encyclopedia Britannica (1988)
    Full Citation: New Encyclop$70aedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1988 printing. 29 vols. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 1988.
    Page: 5:303

    [for an online source]
  • Brief Citation: Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2002-)
    Full Citation: Encyclop$70aedia Britannica. Britannica Online. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2002-. (1 July 2002)
    Page: accessed 2 May 2004

If the title you are sourcing is not the entry-form title in the source, in order to unambiguously refer to the entry, do the following:

For hard-copy sources (e.g., books), include the entry form term, heading, or title of the entry or article, volume number (if applicable), and page number.

For online sources, include the entry form term or heading, or the title of the entry or article, and access date.

  • Examples
    [for a hard copy source]
  • Brief Citation: Oxford Companion to Art (1996)
    Full Citation: Oxford Companion to Art. Harold Osborne, ed. Melbourne; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
    Page: "Villes Neuves," 1192

    [for an online source]
  • Brief Citation: Grove Dictionary of Art online (1999-2002)
    Full Citation: Grove Dictionary of Art (online edition). Jane Turner, ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Ltd., 1999-2002. (3 December 1999).
    Page: "Egypt, ancient: Canopic jars," accessed 5 August 2002


When the page number field may be left empty
The Page Number field may be left empty when an article and page are fully cited in the full citation, when the entry-form term in a hard-copy encyclopedia or dictionary entry is the same as the preferred term in the AAT record, and for references to contributors' databases (unless an access date is applicable) or to the Getty Vocabulary Program reference (below):

  • Brief Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program rules
    Full Citation: Getty Vocabulary Program. Term warranted by Vocabulary Program Editorial Guidelines.




Merging Sources


When to merge
Before merging, be certain that the two records actually represent the same source. The sources must be the same work and the same edition of that work, with the same year of publication, the same place of publication, etc.

  • Caveat re. merging: If in doubt, do NOT merge the records.


Procedures for merging
After determining that the records absolutely represent the same source, you may "merge." From the results list, mark DOM and REC. Mark the best, primary record as "DOM" (for dominant) and the record(s) that are to be merged into it as "REC" (for recessive). Merge using the menu.

  • After merging, check the merged record and edit as necessary.


If, in spite of all precautions, you mistakenly merge the wrong records and you notice this error immediately, you may click "unmerge" from the menu. If some time has passed before you've noticed the mistake, if you are uncertain how to do this, or have any doubt about the "unmerge," consult with your supervisor before doing anything.




[1]The Vocabulary Program rules differ from AACR in recording titles in English in "title case," with initial capitals for the first word and all other words except articles, prepositions, etc. AACR records titles in "sentence case," with capitalization of only the first word and proper names. Using sentence case for titles is contrary to common practice in the art historical community.


Last updated 22 December 2015
Document is subject to frequent revisions


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