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3. Editorial Rules
 

3

EDITORIAL RULES

   

3.1

 

Hierarchical Relationships

Included in this chapter

 

 

     

3.1.1

 

 

Parents (required)

     

3.1.1.1

 

 

Definition
The broader context(s) for the concept record; parents refer to Hierarchical Relationships, which are broader/narrower, reciprocal relationships between records.

     

3.1.1.2

 

 

Fields

  • 1. Parent: The parent_key is the numeric Subject ID of the preferred parent (e.g., 100001). The records for the child and parent are linked by their ID. When an editor places a record in a hierarchy in VCS, she/he chooses the correct parent and the system makes the link using the two IDs.

  • 2. Preferred Parent Flag: Indicates if this is the preferred parent or a non-preferred parent. Each concept may have only one preferred parent. Values are P[referred] and N[on-preferred].

  • 3. Parent String: A display generated by the system by concatenating the descriptors of the immediate parent and other ancestors, used to give context to the concept's descriptor in horizontal displays (as opposed to vertical, hierarchical displays) (e.g., in parentheses in this example: Red-figure (Greek vase painting styles, Aegean pottery styles …)).

      • Example:
      • [from the VCS Subject Edit window for Red-figure]
       
   

      [from the VCS Hierarchy View for Red-figure]

       

3.1.1.3

 

 

Values
Values are concatenated automatically by the system, using the preferred name, qualifier (if any), and appropriate indentation.

     

3.1.1.4

 

 

Sources: Warrant for hierarchical placement
Given that the hierarchical placement of concepts is so idiosyncratic and specialized to the AAT, published and other sources do not provide warrant for hierarchical placement. Use precedent in the AAT, and place the terms in accordance with the internal logic and history of the AAT. Consult with your supervisor when in doubt.

 

 

 

3.1.1.5

 

 

Discussion
In the Getty Vocabularies, each record is linked to its immediate parent by means of a numeric ID. The hierarchy is constructed through these links.

  • The hierarchy in the AAT refers to the method of structuring and displaying the concept records within their broader contexts. Facets, levels called "Hierarchies," and levels called "Guide Terms" (published with angled brackets), provide logical structure to the hierarchies. Relationships in the hierarchy are indicated with indentation. Hierarchical relationships in the AAT generally represent genus/species relationships (as opposed to whole/part relationships). The AAT is polyhierarchical, meaning that concepts can belong to more than one parent. Hierarchical relationships are referred to by genealogical terms: child, children, siblings, parent, grandparent, ancestors, descendents, etc.

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.5.1

 

 

Hierarchy display
In VCS, the hierarchical relationships are visible from the Hierarchy View window and also from the Subject Edit full record window, under Hierarchies (where it displays in a horizontal string). Hierarchical relationships are created in the Hierarchy Display of VCS or by loading candidate data.

  • Root of the hierarchy: AAT root, named Top of the AAT hierarchies, is the highest level of the hierarchy (the so-called root). The facets are located directly below the Root. Each facet has one or more levels known as "Hierarchies" (which can be confusing, given that the entire structure is also referred to as being constructed of "hierarchies").

  • Hierarchical displays are system-generated from the preferred term, the qualifier (if any), and links to parents and other ancestors. Indentation is used to indicate genus/species relationships. In the example above, Red-figure is the immediate parent of Florid Style, and <Greek vase painting styles> is an ancestor (the grandparent). All of the concepts below Red-figure are its children, and they are siblings to each other.

  • The AAT hierarchy has many levels of depth, although the display usually shows only the first level below the target record and all levels above it.

  • In VCS, the plus sign indicates where more levels may be visible (click on the plus sign in VCS to view the children under any level). In the online display, click on the hierarchy symbol.

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.5.2

 

 

Major Subdivisions: Facets and hierarchies
Facets constitute the major subdivisions of the AAT hierarchical structure. A facet contains a homogeneous class of concepts, the members or children of which share characteristics that distinguish them from members of other classes. For example, marble refers to a substance used in the creation of art and architecture, and it is found in the Materials facet. Impressionist denotes a visually distinctive style of art, and it is found in the Styles and Periods facet.

   » List of Facets and Hierarchies in the AAT

The so-called "Hierarchies" are arranged within the seven facets of the AAT. The facets are conceptually organized in a scheme that proceeds from abstract concepts to concrete, physical artifacts. A broader term provides an immediate class or genus to a concept, and serves to clarify its meaning. The narrower term is always a type of, kind of, example of, or manifestation of its broader context. For example, orthographic drawings is the broader context for plans (drawings) because all plans are orthographic (i.e., the projectors are perpendicular to the picture plane).

ASSOCIATED CONCEPTS FACET
Hierarchy: Associated Concepts

PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES FACET
Hierarchies: Attributes and Properties, Conditions and Effects, Design Elements, Color

STYLES AND PERIODS FACET
Hierarchy: Styles and Periods

AGENTS FACET
Hierarchies: People, Organizations, Living Organisms

ACTIVITIES FACET
Hierarchies: Disciplines, Functions, Events, Physical and Mental Activities, Processes and Techniques

MATERIALS FACET
Hierarchy: Materials

OBJECTS FACET
Hierarchies:
Object Groupings and Systems
Object Genres
Components
Built Environment: Settlements and Landscapes, Built Complexes and Districts, Single Built Works, Open Spaces and Site Elements
Furnishings and Equipment: Furnishings, Costume, Tools and Equipment, Weapons and Ammunition, Measuring Devices, Containers, Sound Devices, Recreational Artifacts, Transportation Vehicles
Visual and Verbal Communication: Visual Works, Exchange Media, Information Forms

 

3.1.1.5.3

Guide terms
Guide Terms are records that serve as place savers to create a level in the hierarchy under which the AAT can collocate related concepts. Guide terms are not used by end users for indexing or cataloging. In displays and whenever published, Guide Terms are enclosed in angled brackets (e.g., <costume by function>)

      • Example
        [partial display for "costume"]

      • Top of the AAT hierarchies
        .... Objects Facet
        ........ Furnishings and Equipment
        ............ Costume
        ................ costume
        .................... <costume by form>
        ........................ main garments
        ........................ outerwear
        ........................ underwear
        .................... <costume by function>
        ........................ bearing cloths
        ........................ binders (costume)
        ........................<ceremonial costume>
        ........................ coverups
        ........................ goalie's masks
        ........................ habits
        ........................ masks (costume)
        [etc.]

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.6

 

 

RULES for creating hierarchical relationships

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.6.1

 

 

Facets and "Hierarchies"
The records for the top organizational levels of the AAT, including Facets and "Hierarchies," may not be edited, merged, or moved without the permission of your supervisor. You may not add a new Facet or Hierarchy.

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.6.3

 

 

Adding "Guide Term" level
Create a Guide Term level only 1) to be consistent with other similar hierarchies in the AAT or 2) when a valid concept record will not suffice to mark the level. See also 3.3 Terms.

      • Examples
      • <photographs by technique>
      • <single built works by location or context>
      • <single built works by function>

  • Note that the angled brackets appear only in displays after the data is processed. Do NOT type angled brackets in the term field. Indicate that a record is a Guide Term by using the Record Type field (see 3.2 Identifying numbers, status flags, and subject sources), and the publishing routine will insert the angled brackets.

      • Example




  • Constructing a Guide Term
    If it is necessary to construct a guide term, create a term that will represent the characteristics of the division by which a listing of narrower terms is clustered. Use the precedent of other guide terms in the same or a similar area of the hierarchies.
      • Examples
      • <single built works by location or context>
        ... gatehouses

      • <single built works by function>
        ... dwellings

  • Types of Guide Terms
    Make Guide Terms consistent with other divisions in the same or a similar hierarchy. Use established types of guide term consistently throughout the AAT, such as when particular characteristics of division, such as form and function, are applicable. Three recurrent guide terms are <...by form>, <...by function>, and <...by location or context>.

    • by form: Use this guide term level to collocate terms for images and objects that are distinguishable by their physical form or by the manner in which they are presented. In general, if an object is identified by sight, then it is located under a "by form" guide term.

    • by function: Use this guide term level to collocate terms for objects that are distinguishable by the particular purpose for which they are designed or used. If an object is identifiable by its intended use, it is placed under a "by function" guide term.

    • by location or context: Use this guide term level to collocate terms for objects that are distinguishable by their use or application within a particular physical location. If an object is identifiable by association with specific surroundings, it is placed under a "by location" guide term.

    • others: Use additional guide term levels as needed to maintain consistency. The nature of certain subject areas may require the use of subject-specific guide terms, such as <...by method of representation> in the Visual Works hierarchy.

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.6.4

 

 

How to choose the parent
Position terms under the most logical broader term, keeping in mind the particular logic evident throughout the AAT. Choose the parent based on precedent by consulting records for similar types of concepts in the AAT.

  • Specificity of placement
    Position the AAT record under the most specific parent possible. Be consistent with the precedent of other records in the same or similar sections of the hierarchies.

  • Is this parent correct?
    With the descriptor of the concept record in mind, determine if this concept is a type of the proposed parent concept. If it is, then a genus/species relationship exists.

    • Make sure that each subset of narrower terms clustered under a broader term is independent and mutually exclusive in meaning. Occasionally meanings may overlap among siblings, but avoid this when possible.

    • Be sure that the genus/species logic holds true upwards through all levels of the hierarchy above the concept.

      • Examples
        [the most specific parent for "soufflé dishes" is "baking dishes"; "soufflé dishes" is a "type of" or "example of" all ancestors all the way up the hierarchy; its meaning is exclusive of all its siblings]

      • Top of the AAT hierarchies
        .... Objects Facet
        ........ Furnishings and Equipment
        ............ Containers
        ................ containers
        .................... <containers by function or context>
        ........................ <culinary containers>
        ............................ <containers for cooking food>
        ................................ <vessels for cooking food>
        .................................... bakeware
        ........................................ baking dishes
        ............................................ casseroles
        ............................................ pie plates
        ............................................ ramekins
        ............................................ souffl$00e dishes
        ............................................ terrines

      [the most specific parent for "Flamboyant" is "<French Medieval architecture styles>"; "Flamboyant" is a "type of" all ancestors all the way up the hierarchy; its meaning is exclusive of all its siblings]

      • Top of the AAT hierarchies
        .... Styles and Periods Facet
        ........ Styles and Periods
        ............ <styles and periods by region>
        ................ European
        .................... <European styles and periods>
        ........................ <Medieval styles and periods>
        ............................ Medieval
        ................................ <Medieval regional styles>
        .................................... <Northern European Medieval styles>
        ........................................ <French Medieval styles>
        ............................................<French Medieval architecture styles>
        ................................................ Angevin Gothic
        ................................................ Flamboyant
        ................................................ Rayonnant

  • Quick test: The genus/species relationship is illustrated by the "all-some test." The children should all be a type of, kind of, example of, or manifestation of the parent, but from the parent's point of view, it encompasses only some of any given child. As illustrated in the example below, all houses [child] are dwellings [parent], and some dwellings [parent] are houses [child] (but not all dwellings are houses). If this test does not work, the placement of the child is incorrect.

      • Example

      • Top of the AAT hierarchies
        .... Objects Facet
        ........ Built Environment
        ............ Single Built Works
        ................ <single built works>
        .................... <single built works by specific type>
        ........................ <single built works by function>
        ............................ <residential structures>
        ................................ dwellings
        .................................... houses

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.6.5

 

 

Determining levels of the hierarchy

  • Consistent levels within the AAT
    There is no set number of levels within the AAT. Place the concept record only as deep in the hierarchy as necessary; do not make frivolous or unnecessary levels. However, at the same time be consistent with the rest of the AAT hierarchy, which often includes up to a dozen or more levels.
      • Examples
        ["culture" at level 5]
      • Top of the AAT hierarchies
        .... Associated Concepts Facet
        ........ Associated Concepts
        ............ <culture and related concepts>
        ................ culture


        ["biggins" at level 13]
      • Top of the AAT hierarchies
        .... Objects Facet
        ........ Furnishings and Equipment
        ............ Containers
        ................ containers
        .................... <containers by function or context>
        ........................ <culinary containers>
        ............................ <containers for serving and consuming food>
        ................................ <vessels for serving and consuming food>
        .................................... <vessels for serving drinks>
        ........................................ coffeepots
        ............................................ biggins (vessels)

  • Levels with identical names
    In some cases, the levels of the AAT seem to be very redundant, where multiple levels, one under the other, have names that differ only in capitalization. This occurs only with facets, "hierarchies," and guide terms; it should never occur with concept term names. (The redundancy is an artifact of the AAT development over 20 years; we may streamline the AAT sometime in the future, but such a major overhaul will not happen soon.)

    • It is unlikely that you will have reason to add levels with redundant names to the AAT. However, if you find a situation where it may be necessary to do so, consult with your supervisor.
     
  • Choosing the correct facet
    As a first step in choosing a hierarchical position for a record, look up similar concepts in the AAT, using basic information that you know about the concept.

    • For example, if you wish to place the term sulfuryl fluoride in the AAT, and you know that it is an inorganic chemical compound used as an insecticide, where does it go? If you browse around in the AAT, you will see that there are many chemicals listed under inorganic material, but none under insecticide. Therefore, you would abide by precedent and place sulfuryl fluoride with the other inorganic materials, and refer to its usage as an insecticide in the Scope Note. You may surmise the logic: The AAT cannot place every chemical compound under its usage because many have many uses.

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.6.6

 

 

In the Associated Concepts Facet
In this facet include terms for all abstract concepts and phenomena that relate to the study and execution of various areas of human thought and activity, including architecture and art in all media, as well as related disciplines. Also covered here are theoretical and critical concerns, ideologies, attitudes, and social or cultural movements (e.g., beauty, balance, connoisseurship, metaphor, freedom, socialism).

    »Associated Concepts hierarchy

The Associated Concepts facet has only one hierarchy, also called Associated Concepts.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for branches of learning and areas of specialization, professions and professional specialties (e.g., history) go in the Disciplines hierarchy, but concepts associated with these disciplines (e.g., positivism) belong here in Associated Concepts.
  • Terms for styles and movements (e.g., Neoclassical, Impressionist) belong in the Styles and Periods hierarchy, but forms of expression (e.g., abstraction) and broad categories of art and architecture that are not specific to a given people or period (e.g., organic architecture, street art) belong here in Associated Concepts.
  • Organization
    Records are arranged according to the field of study or activity to which they relate, such as <concepts in the arts> (e.g., connoisseurship), <environmental concepts> (e.g., green design), <legal concepts> (e.g., liability), <psychological concepts> (e.g., perception), and <technology and related concepts> (e.g., infrastructure). Place concepts that relate to many fields of study (e.g., methodology) under <multi-disciplinary concepts>.

  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors should be nouns. Use of the singular or plural form is decided on the basis of literary warrant and common usage. Provide adjectival forms as alternate descriptors in some cases (e.g., for Buddhism, alternate descriptor = Buddhist). Keep in mind that descriptors and alternate descriptors may be used by end users in combination with other terms (e.g., Buddhist + monasteries; Inuit + customs). For further discussion regarding descriptors, see 3.3 Terms.

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.6.7

 

 

In the Physical Attributes facet
In this facet include terms for the perceptible or measurable characteristics of materials and artifacts as well as features of materials and artifacts that are not separable as components. Included are characteristics such as size and shape, chemical properties of materials, qualities of texture and hardness, and features such as surface ornament and color (e.g., strapwork, borders, round, waterlogged, brittleness).

    »Attributes and Properties hierarchy

Contains terms for inherent characteristics, especially physical characteristics of materials and objects. Excluded are descriptors for colors and color properties, which are found in the separate Color hierarchy.

  • Attribute or Property? In common usage, the distinction between which characteristics may be called "attributes" and which "properties" is not always clear, thus a separation between the two has not always been made in the hierarchy. As a general guideline, "attributes" refers to characteristics of individual objects, items, or entities, and the descriptors are mostly used to describe the thing; they often are readily apparent, though not quantifiable by an established standard. "Properties" refers here to characteristics that suggest how a material, or sometimes a grouping of things, will respond under certain conditions; they often are quantifiable, although often are not apparent without examination or testing.
  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Other hierarchies include alternate descriptors that may serve as attributes (e.g., carved is the alternate descriptor of carving; wooden is the alternate descriptor of wood). Do not repeat such terms in Attributes and Properties.
  • Descriptors for color names belong in the Color hierarchy.

  • Certain physical phenomena that are closely associated with physical and chemical properties (e.g., luminescence) belong in the Associated Concepts hierarchy.

  • Expressions that describe effects of particular physical circumstances on materials or objects belong in the Conditions and Effects hierarchy (e.g., cracks).

  • Descriptive characteristics may also be placed in various other hierarchies as parts of compound terms (e.g., split-level houses).
  • Organization
    Most descriptors should appear under <attributes and properties by specific type>, either directly under that guide term or grouped when necessary under a more specific guide term (e.g., under <positional attributes>).

  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Some descriptors may be adjectives; others should be nouns with an adjective provided as an alternate descriptor. Choose the form based on precedent, together with need and usage. Remember that descriptors and alternate descriptors will be used by end users in combination with other terms (e.g., handmade + carpets; porous + stone). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

    »Conditions and Effects hierarchy

Contains descriptors for physical characteristics perceptible in or on materials or objects that are the result of particular physical circumstances or of spontaneous physical or chemical change.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for processes of physical change are found in the Processes and Techniques hierarchy, and some of those descriptors can designate both the process and the effect (e.g., corrosion).
  • Descriptors for forms or effects purposefully added to objects as ornament (e.g., air traps) are found in the Design Elements hierarchy.
  • Organization
    Place the record directly under <conditions and effects> if the phenomenon appears in various types of material or objects (e.g., cracks). Place the record under a more specific guide term if there is a subdivision that applies (e.g., <conditions and effects: paper>.

  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors should be in the noun form, with alternate descriptors provided as appropriate. In some cases the alternate is the singular noun (e.g., defects with the alternate defect) and others are an adjective form (e.g., wear, alternate worn). Remember that end users use descriptors and alternate descriptors in combination with other terms (e.g., paint + cleavage; surface + defects). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

    »Design Elements hierarchy

The Design Elements hierarchy contains terms for conventionalized and recurring shapes and arrangements of forms used in the design of many types of objects and their ornament. These may be two-dimensional such as painted zigzags, in relief such as carved rosettes, or may refer to the shape of discrete objects, such as Celtic crosses sculpted in stone.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for certain attributes related to shape or position are in the Attributes and Properties hierarchy (e.g., convex, concentric) and should not be repeated in Design Elements.
  • Three-dimensional ornamental components of structures and other objects are found in the Components hierarchy (e.g., finials).
  • Organization
    Arrange the hierarchy in sections for applied decoration (e.g., banding), for individual motifs (e.g., palmettes), for areas of ornamental design (e.g., borders), and for repetitive patterns (e.g., interlace).

  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors should be plural nouns except where usage dictates the singular, including most pattern types (e.g., herringbone). For those in the plural, make singular forms as alternate descriptors if appropriate. Note that end users will create terms for motifs based on objects or figures, by using alternate descriptors from other hierarchies with the term motif (e.g., shell + motif; tree + motif). For further discussion regarding creating terms, see 3.3 Terms.

    »Color hierarchy

The Color hierarchy contains the names of colors and terms for color in the sense of qualities perceived through vision responding to different wavelengths of light. Also included are terms for types of color (e.g., cool colors) and color?related phenomena (e.g., color mixture).

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for inherent physical characteristics other than color but which may relate to color (e.g., permanence) belong in the Attributes and Properties hierarchy.
  • Terms for physical phenomena perceptible in color (e.g., abrash, color shift) are in the Conditions and Effects hierarchy.>

  • Terms for individual and repeating design elements such as signs and symbols, motifs, patterns, and areas of decoration are in the Design Elements hierarchy (e.g., crosses, Tudor roses, frets).

  • Terms for materials used to impart color to physical things (e.g., dye, pigment) are found in the Materials hierarchy.
  • Organization
    Records are arranged in two sections: colors and <color and color-related phenomena>.
  • The first section is subdivided into <chromatic colors> (e.g., grayish brown), neutrals (e.g., black), and <color types> (e.g., primary colors).

  • The second section is subdivided into color (e.g., reflected color), <color properties> (e.g., undertone), <color-related attributes> (e.g., monochrome), and <color-related effects> (e.g., tint).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors should be in noun or adjectival form as appropriate. Provide singular forms as alternate descriptors to plural noun descriptors. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors other terms (deep greenish blue + silk; warm color + perception; deep purple + tint). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.6.8

 

 

In the Styles and Periods facet
In this facet include terms for stylistic groupings and distinct chronological periods that are relevant to art, architecture, and the decorative arts (e.g., French, Louis XIV, Xia, Black-figure, Abstract Expressionist). The names of cultures are also included.

    »Styles and Periods hierarchy

The Styles and Periods facet has only one hierarchy, also called Styles and Periods. It contains the names of art and architecture styles, historical periods, and art movements. Names of peoples, cultures, individuals, and sites are included if they designate distinct styles or periods (e.g., Yoruba, Louis XIV). Geographic descriptors are included for broad cultural regions and nations.

  • Style, Period, or Culture? In common usage, the distinction between which characteristics may be called "styles," which are "periods," and which are "culture" is not always clear due to frequent overlap, thus a separation between the three has not always been made in the hierarchy.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for genres of art, including all the arts not specific to a given people or period (e.g., amateur art, pattern poetry) are found in the Associated Concepts hierarchy, as are descriptors for general approaches to art (e.g., realism).
  • Specific movements named after such approaches are found here in the Styles and Periods hierarchy (e.g., Realist).
  • Organization
    The hierarchy is organized in two sections.
  • The first section, <styles and periods by general era>, contains terms that apply generally to several various regions or cultures (e.g., prehistoric).

  • The second section <styles and periods by region> contains terms that are specific to certain regions or cultures. This section is divided into the following: African, <The Americas>. Asian, <Early Western World>, European, <The Islamic World>, Oceanic, and <international post-1945 styles and movements>.

  • Arrange records chronologically instead of alphabetically where a clear chronological order exists. See Sort Order below.

  • The preferred parent for a descriptor for a style or period should be with its earliest chronological occurrence or where the descriptor has its broadest meaning. In general, descriptors should be considered as clarified by their hierarchical position but not limited in meaning by it. For example, descriptors for styles that have spread from their region of origin to other regions are typically listed under the region of origin, but they are appropriate to designate the style wherever it has been carried. Georgian appears with British styles because this is where it developed, but end users may use the descriptor to describe the Georgian style in the United States.
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors from the Styles and Periods hierarchy are intended to be used as modifiers and therefore are in adjectival form, where such exists (e.g., Greek). Otherwise they are in noun form to be used as noun modifiers (e.g., Shawnee). In the modern and post-1945 sections, where a descriptor is an adjective derived from the descriptor of an artistic movement, the descriptor of that movement appears as an alternate descriptor (e.g., Cubist, alternate Cubism). End users will create some style names by combining two or more descriptors from this hierarchy (e.g., French + Renaissance). When place names are needed, users will be advised to take them from the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names, (e.g., Massachusetts + Italianate + houses). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.6.9

 

 

In the Agents facet
In this facet include terms for designations of people, groups of people, and organizations identified by occupation or activity, by physical or mental characteristics, or by social role or condition (e.g., printmakers, landscape architects, corporations, religious orders). Animals will also be included in this facet.

    »People hierarchy

Contains terms for individual people and for groups of people that do not constitute organizations (no proper names, however). Included are people defined by occupations or activities they pursue, such as conservators, by biological or social roles such as parents, and by other characteristics such as adherence to a particular belief (e.g., pacifists) or social or physical condition (e.g., homeless persons). Also included are terms for groups of people defined by activity ( e.g., steel bands) and social, mental, or physical condition (e.g., poor).

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for organized groups of people (e.g., associations, nations) are found in the Organizations hierarchy.
  • Terms for branches of learning, areas of specialization, and professional fields are found in the Disciplines hierarchy (e.g., mathematics, zoning law, museology).
  • Organization
    The hierarchy is arranged in nine sections:
  • <groups of people> (e.g., audiences)
  • <people by age group> (e.g., adults)
  • <people by family relationship> (e.g., offspring)
  • <people by gender> (e.g., women)
  • <people by occupation> (e.g., auditors)
  • <people by degree of qualification>, (e.g., amateurs)
  • <people by activity>, (e.g., collectors)
  • <people by ideology, philosophy, or political activity> (e.g., revolutionaries)
  • <people by state or condition> (e.g., handicapped).

    »Organizations hierarchy

Contains terms for groups of people organized for a purpose, typically characterized by a more or less constant membership, a body of officers or functionaries, and a set of regulations guiding their activities and conduct. Included are public organizations such as social services, private organizations such as firms, and those that can be either such as charities. Also included are administrative and political organizations such as nations and kingdoms that incorporate a geographic area and general population as well as an organized administration.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for groups of people that do not constitute organizations (e.g., social classes) are found in the People hierarchy.
  • Terms for collections of objects brought together and managed by an organization or person (e.g., corporate collections) are found in the Object Groupings and Systems hierarchies.

  • Terms for settlements (e.g., cities) and districts (e.g., school districts) which include an organization but which emphasize a concept of physical space takes precedence are found in the Settlements and Landscapes and the Built Complexes and Districts hierarchies respectively.

  • Terms that are the same for both a building and the organization it houses (e.g., churches, hospitals) are found in the Built Works hierarchy.
  • Organization
    The hierarchy is arranged, wherever possible, in generic groups such as <administrative bodies> (e.g., sovereign states), armed forces (e.g., air forces), associations (e.g., trade unions), boards (organizations) (e.g., zoning boards), business enterprises (e.g., corporations), institutions (e.g., social institutions), <services> (e.g., emergency services), and <organizations by location or context> (e.g., international organizations).

  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns, with the singular noun as alternate descriptors. End users will combine descriptors with other terms (e.g., democratic + Greek + city-states, librarians' + professional associations). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

    »Living Organisms hierarchy

Contains terms for animals and plants, including their scientific names as well as common names. This hierarchy is under development, although the basic upper levels are published to allow users to contribute.

  • Regarding other hierarchies
    Records for animals or plants may be linked through Associative Relationships to records for the products derived from them, particularly when the product is unique and used to produce architecture or art (e.g., vellum).


  • Organization
    The basic underlying structure is arranged according to the most recent available taxonomies of animals and plants in standard, general reference sources.

    • Note that this hierarchy does not duplicate scientific taxonomies: it includes levels and records that are inappropriate for a scientific taxonomy but are necessary for the target audience of the AAT, which is the art and architectural history cataloging community. The hierarchy combines living and extinct animals and plants, animals or plants by location and context (e.g., waterfowl), common names (e.g., zebras) that have no direct counterpart in a scientific taxonomy because they do not correspond to a single species or genus, groups of animals (e.g., flocks), components of animals (e.g., paws), and other divisions that are not part of a scientific taxonomy.


    • The preferred scientific names and the basic underlying structure of the AAT hierarchies are usually derived from encyclopedia and other authoritative general reference sources rather than the most recent scientific taxonomies: taxonomic classifications have been in flux since the 1980s and many competing classifications exist, some based on traditional morphological evidence and others on analyses of molecular data. It is out of scope for the AAT to reflect the most current developments in this field.


    • Required levels: The hierarchies to the level of order should already be established. If you need an order that is missing, consult with your supervisor. If you are adding a new species, you must enter all relevant levels up to order. To determine the appropriate levels for a particular area of the hierarchy, consult other nearby or analogous sections of the hierarchy. The minimum hierarchical levels for a species are the following:

      Kingdom
      .... Phylum (Division for plants)
      ........Class
      ............Order
      ................Family
      ....................Genus
      ........................Species

  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors should follow the conventions of the discipline. Names of kingdom, phylum/division, class, order, family, and genus are spelled with initial capitals (e.g., Canis). The names of species repeat the capitalized name of the genus, and the distinguishing term for the species is in lower case (e.g., Canis lupus).

    • Provide the common name plural form as an alternate descriptor if and only if it is an exact synonym (e.g., domestic cats is a synonym of Felis domesticus, but wolves is not a synonym to either species Canis lupus or to the next higher level, genus Canis (because wolves refers to species other than Canis lupus, but Canis includes various canids besides wolves).

    • If the common term does not match a level in the hierarchy of the scientific taxonomy, make a separate record for the common term, and make hierarchical or associative relationships to the related records with scientific descriptors, as necessary.


    • For the scientific descriptors, make Qualifiers for family, genus, species, etc., as appropriate and following precedent of the existing hierarchy.

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.6.10

 

 

In the Activities facet
In this facet include terms for areas of endeavor, physical and mental actions, discrete occurrences, systematic sequences of actions, methods employed toward a certain end, and processes occurring in materials or objects. Activities may range from branches of learning and professional fields to specific life events, from mentally executed tasks to processes performed on or with materials and objects, from single physical actions to complex games (e.g., archaeology, engineering, analyzing, contests, exhibitions, running, drawing (image-making), corrosion).

   » Disciplines hierarchy

Contains terms for branches of learning, areas of specialization, and professions and professional specialties.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Material-specific or object-specific activities appear primarily in the Processes and Techniques hierarchy (e.g., metalworking, carpentry) while more general professional activities appear here (e.g., civil engineering).
  • Theories relating to disciplines appear in the Associated Concepts hierarchy (e.g., structuralism).

  • Terms for activities conducted in order to accomplish specific purposes appear in the Functions hierarchy (e.g., researching, criticism).
  • Organization
    Most descriptors are collocated under one of the traditional fields of study: humanities (e.g., classics), social sciences (e.g., criminology), and sciences (e.g., biology). Disciplines that incorporate aspects of more than one of the above areas are classed under <cross-and interdisciplinary studies> (e.g., forensic medicine).

  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors appear as singular nouns, except where common usage dictates the plural (e.g., sciences). Include adjectival forms as alternate descriptors where justified by common usage. End users will combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., dance + photography; highway + engineering; Canadian + printmaking). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Functions hierarchy

Contains descriptors for activities that are conducted in order to accomplish specific purposes, as well as methodologies associated with specific areas of endeavor. It includes descriptors for activities relating to the manipulation of data, the collecting of objects, human communication, economics, business, law, and government, as well as other professional activities.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms describing branches of learning, (e.g., history) and areas of specialization, (e.g., law), are found in the Disciplines hierarchy.
  • Terms for operations and processes performed on or with objects and materials (e.g., polishing), are found in the Processes and Techniques hierarchy.

  • Terms denoting occasions and happenings of a social, cultural, religious, or personal nature (e.g., exhibitions), are found in the Events hierarchy.
  • Organization
    The hierarchy is divided into two main sections: <functions by general context> and <functions by specific context>.
  • The first section consists of activities common to a wide range of institutions, professions, and occupations, such as: <analytical functions> (e.g., inspecting), <economic and financial functions> (e.g., bidding), <information handling functions> (e.g., editing), and <organizational functions> (e.g., scheduling).

  • The second section includes activities usually found in a particular context, such as: <educational functions> (e.g., teaching), <governmental functions> (e.g., taxing), <legal functions> (e.g., paroling), and <religious functions> (e.g., baptizing).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors should be in gerund form or in the most commonly used noun form. Adjectival forms are provided as alternate descriptors in some cases as justified by common usage. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., promoting + military personnel; hospital + maintenance; accredited + institutions). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Events hierarchy

Contains descriptors for occurrences, happenings, and occasions of a social, cultural, religious, or personal nature (e.g., anniversaries, concerts, births).

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for activities and methodologies associated with specific contexts (e.g., researching, taxing) are found in the Functions hierarchy.
  • Terms relating to actions performed with concrete objects and materials (e.g., polishing), are found in the Processes and Techniques hierarchy.
  • Organization
    Descriptors are arranged under broad groupings such as celebrations (e.g., centennials), ceremonies (e.g., baptisms), contests (e.g., tournaments), <entertainment events> (e.g., performances), holidays (e.g., Passover), meetings (e.g., conferences), <natural events> (e.g., floods), <religious seasons> (e.g., Ramadan), and <sales events> (e.g., auctions).

  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns, unless common usage dictates the singular. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors to plural descriptors. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., Micmac + feasts; boat + races; children's + birthdays). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Physical and Mental Activities hierarchy

Contains descriptors for activities ranging from single actions to complex sets of physical and mental pursuits. Mental activities are those performed entirely or primarily with the brain. Physical activities are those performed with other parts of the body or the body as a whole.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for processes performed physically on or with materials or objects (e.g., carving) are found in the Processes and Techniques hierarchy.
  • Terms for organizational, administrative, or intellectual activities conducted to achieve specific purposes (e.g., analysis) are found in the Functions hierarchy.

  • Terms denoting occasions, including those when activities in this hierarchy might take place (e.g., sailing, basketball) or are always dependent for their occurrence on a clearly defined set of circumstances (e.g., races) appear in the Events hierarchy.
  • Organization
    The hierarchy consists of two sections, <physical activities> and <mental activities>.
  • <Physical activities> is itself divided into two sections. Under <physical activities by general context> are collocated terms for actions that can occur in a variety of locations or contexts, (e.g., driving, games). Under <physical activities by specific context> are descriptors for actions that always take place in a particular location (e.g., sailing, basketball) or are always dependent for their occurrence on a set of clearly defined circumstances (e.g., backgammon).

  • <Mental activities> is not subdivided (although it may be in the future).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors appear in either noun or gerund form. They may be used in combination with descriptors from this and other hierarchies (e.g., baseball + bats: automobile + racing). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Processes and Techniques hierarchy

Contains terms for actions and methods performed physically on or with materials and objects, and for processes occurring in materials and objects. Included are types of process or technique pertaining to the production and handling of objects or images (e.g., assembling) or of substances (e.g., mixing) or relevant to the manipulation and processing of specific materials (e.g., soldering). Also included are descriptors for processes that occur in substances, artifacts, or other objects, sometimes initiated intentionally and sometimes occurring spontaneously (e.g., burning).

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for organizational, administrative, or intellectual activities conducted to accomplish specific purposes (e.g., analysis), including descriptors relating to the collecting of objects and various other professional activities (e.g., collections management), are found in the Functions hierarchy.
  • Terms that designate branches of learning (e.g., anthropology) are found in the Disciplines hierarchy, while the processes and techniques associated with these fields are contained here.

  • Terms for physical and mental actions not performed to manipulate materials or fabricate objects (e.g., running, meditation) are placed in the Physical and Mental Activities hierarchy.

  • Certain terms that refer to degenerative forces on materials or structures (e.g., stress) are found in the Associated Concepts hierarchy.

  • Terms for certain effects caused by processes occurring in materials and objects (e.g., cracks) appear in the Conditions and Effects hierarchy.
  • Organization
    Most records appear under <processes and techniques by specific type>. When possible, they are grouped according to similarities such as type of action performed (e.g., under <additive and joining processes and techniques>) or by the intended function of the activity (e.g., under <restorative processes and techniques>). Under <processes and techniques by material> are terms for processes specific to certain materials (e.g., woodworking).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are in gerund or noun form according to need and usage (e.g., abrasion, tuning, tapestry). Adjectival forms are provided as alternate descriptors where appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., hand-colored + photographs: Medieval + cloisonné; half-timber + cottages). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.6.11

 

 

In the Materials facet
In this facet include terms for physical substances, whether naturally or synthetically derived. These range from specific materials to types of materials designed by their function, such as colorants, and from raw materials to those that have been formed or processed into products that are used in fabricating structures or objects (e.g., iron, clay, adhesive, emulsifier, artificial ivory, millwork).

   » Materials hierarchy

The Materials facet has only one hierarchy, also called Materials.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Material products are included here rather than in the Objects facet because they can be used in the construction of various objects (e.g., plank for floors or walls), and because they are not necessary constituent parts of objects (e.g., shingle is not essential to roofs in the same way as roof ridges or eaves).
  • Terms denoting activities performed on or with materials are found in the Processes and Techniques hierarchy (e.g., glassworking).

  • Terms for object types defined by the material from which they are made are found in the Object Genres hierarchy (e.g., metalwork, textiles) while terms for the materials themselves are found here (metal, textile).

  • Terms for tools used in the creation of images (e.g., charcoal sticks, pens) appear in the Tools and Equipment hierarchy, while descriptors for the material of which they are made or which they use are found here (charcoal, ink).
  • Organization
    The hierarchy is divided into five broad sections.
  • The organization of this hierarchy reflects an emphasis on the substance quality of materials rather than their numerous forms and functions, thus the majority of descriptors appear under the heading <materials by composition>. This section is subdivided into inorganic material (e.g., cement), organic material (e.g., coal), and <combination inorganic/organic material> (e.g., soil). Under <materials by form> are terms for common forms in which materials are produced (e.g., foam). Under <materials by function> are descriptors for classes of materials that denote the particular purpose they serve (e.g., adhesive, solvent) as well as broad headings for materials relating to specific activities (e.g., building materials).

  • Other sections are <materials by origin> (e.g., plant material), and <materials by property> (e.g., inert material).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Most descriptors are singular nouns, except where common usage warrants the plural form. Where appropriate, the plural forms of singular descriptors are provided as alternate descriptors. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., stained glass + windows; canvas + sails; archival quality + mounting board; hardwood + shavings). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.1.6.12

 

 

In the Objects facet
The Objects facet is the largest of all the AAT facets. In this facet include terms for discrete tangible or visible things that are inanimate and produced by human endeavor; that is, that are either fabricated or given form by human activity. These range, in physical form, from built works to images and written documents. They range in purpose from utilitarian to the aesthetic. Also included are landscape features that provide the context for the built environment (e.g., paintings, amphorae, facades, cathedrals, Brewster chairs, gardens).

  • The Objects facet is divided into several sections, Object Groupings and Systems, Object Genres, Components, Built Environment, Furnishings and Equipment, and Visual and Verbal Communication, most of which are themselves further subdivided into Hierarchies. Those Hierarchies are discussed below.

   » Object Groupings and Systems hierarchy

Contains descriptors that in their singular form denote a number of artifacts that are related but discrete and are to be treated as a unit or an assembly of equipment and activities intended to perform a specific function.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for groupings or systems that are not object-based are found in other hierarchies, such as in the Organizations hierarchy, and under <groups of people> in the People hierarchy.

  • Organization
    The hierarchy is divided into three parts.
  • Included under <object groupings by general context> are terms that may pertain either to a variety of object types (e.g., editions), or to groupings that specifically include various object types (e.g., layettes).

  • Under <object groupings by specific context> descriptors appear in sections paralleling the other hierarchies of the Objects facet (e.g., under <furnishings groupings>, <costume groupings>).

  • Under systems are the sections <systems by function>, containing descriptors for systems designated by their purpose (e.g., communication systems), and <systems by location or context>, containing descriptors for systems designated by their place of use (e.g., building systems).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns, with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor where appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., postcard + collections: railroad + personnel). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Object Genres hierarchy

Contains terms that are common to various contexts and may apply to more than one of the other hierarchies in the Objects facet. For example, the descriptor reproductions, in the Object Genres hierarchy, may be applied to many object types, from doorknobs (which is in the Components hierarchy) to altarpieces (which appears in the Visual Works hierarchy).

  • Also included are descriptors for broad classes of objects or images to which specific object types, which are found in other hierarchies, may or may not belong depending on the particular context. For example, photographs (in Visual Works) can be variously considered to be documents or works of art (terms that appear here), depending on the circumstances; or cups (in the Containers hierarchy) can be variously considered as antiques, art objects, or collectibles (terms that appear here), again depending on the circumstances.

  • In addition, included here are terms that refer to an object by its form, and that form is so generic that it does not fall into the more specific scope of any other hierarchy in the Objects facet, such as chains.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for more specific object types, including structures, images, and texts (e.g., chairs, churches, portraits, transcripts), appear in other hierarchies of the Objects facet.
  • Terms for constituent parts of other objects (e.g., handles) are found in the Components hierarchy.

  • Terms for items used as materials to form structures, images, or other objects (e.g. brick) are found in the Materials hierarchy.
  • Organization
    Under <object genres> are terms for object types not specific to another hierarchy or the Objects facet. These include, under <object genres by cultural or intellectual valuation>, terms for broad classes of objects that will be applied to specific objects differently in different contexts, according to cultural values or intellectual judgments (e.g., works of art).
  • Under <originals and derivative objects> are terms that refer to objects or works on the basis of whether or not they derive from other objects or works (e.g., forgeries).

  • Under <object genres by form> are terms that identify a generic object type by aspects of its physical form or arrangement (e.g., fragments).

  • Under <object genres by function> are terms that identify a class of objects by how they are used (e.g., devotional objects).

  • Under <object genres by location, context or origin> are terms that emphasize where that class of objects is or was found or used (e.g., grave goods).

  • Under <object genres by material> are terms that identify a class of objects by what the objects are made from (e.g., glassware).

  • Under <object genres by technique> are terms that denote a class of objects by the technique used to produce them (e.g., castings).

  • Under <object genres by maker's career stage> are terms that identify a class of objects by the stage of the maker's career at which they were made (e.g., early works).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor where appropriate. Descriptors may be used in combination with other terms (e.g., Sumerian + votive offerings; furniture + reproductions; prototype + houses). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Components hierarchy

Contains descriptors for the constituent parts of objects, including structures, images, and texts. In those instances where a descriptor refers to an element that may sometimes be a component and sometimes stand alone, its preferred parent should be the single most suitable hierarchy. For example, chapels, which are always rooms or spaces but may sometimes also be independent buildings, has <rooms and spaces> as preferred parent in the Components hierarchy; air conditioners, which are always equipment but may also sometimes be part of HVAC systems, appears in the Tools and Equipment hierarchy. See Multiple Parents below.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for features that are not separable components, such as ornamental patterns and physical effects (e.g., fluting, wrinkles), appear in the hierarchies of the Physical Attributes facet.
  • Terms for items permanently installed into the fabric of the built environment (e.g. altars) appear here as components, while movable articles used to furnish indoor or outdoor spaces are found in the Furnishings hierarchy.
  • Organization
    Under <components by general context> are descriptors for components that are relevant to numerous different types of object.
  • Under <components by specific context> are terms that appear in sections that mainly parallel the other hierarchies of the Object facet (e.g., <costume components>, <visual works components>).

  • Records are placed in the most specific location that is appropriate; for example, handles, being applicable in many contexts, is under <components by general context>, but drawer pulls is under <handles: finish hardware>, and helves is under <handles: tool components>.
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors appear as plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., Ionic + capitals; satin + lapels). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Settlements and Landscapes hierarchy

Contains descriptors for the largest features of the built environment, whether relatively concentrated (e.g., retirement communities) or extensive (e.g., capital cities).

  • Settlements are defined as all places or areas, however large, occupied or modified by human populations and with enough societal functions to be relatively self-sufficient.

  • Also included in this hierarchy are descriptors for major types of natural landscape and cultural landscape and their components that provide the largest environmental context for built works.

  • Built or natural environment? Given that natural landscapes are in this hierarchy, the AAT does not emphasize a distinction between the natural environment and the built environment. Maintaining such a distinction is often frustrated because (a) there is continuity between the two, (b) much of the natural environment has been subject to human intervention and has the qualifies of a cultural artifact, and (c) much of the built environment, at a wide range of scale, functions as an ecological system.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Administrative bodies (e.g., nations, provinces) are located in the Organizations hierarchy.
  • Adjectival attributes of some settlements (e.g., radial plan) are found in the Associated Concepts hierarchy.

  • Terms referring to individual plants and trees are found in the Materials hierarchy (e.g., bamboo, pine), while descriptors for general vegetation (e.g., jungles, shrubs) are found here.

  • Terms for infrastructural systems, networks of buildings, other structures, and equipment that constitute physically ordered entities within settlements and landscapes (e.g., bus transit systems) are located in the Object Groupings and Systems hierarchy.
  • Organization
    The hierarchy contains two section, settlements and landscapes (environments).
  • Terms in the settlements section are organized according to characteristics such as function (e.g., military towns), economic base (e.g., fishing villages), location (e.g., hill towns), and planning concept (e.g., model cities).

  • The landscapes portion of the hierarchy is organized under natural landscapes and cultural landscapes. Under natural landscapes are descriptors for bodies of water and their components (e.g., lakes), deserts, wetlands (e.g., bogs), major landforms and their components (e.g., mountains, cliffs), major categories of vegetation (e.g., herbaceous plants), and plant communities (e.g., prairies). Cultural landscapes collocates descriptors under <cultural landscapes by function> (e.g., agricultural land), <cultural landscapes by location or context> (e.g., urban landscapes), <cultural landscapes by development practice> (e.g., wasteland), and <cultural landscapes by ownership> (e.g., demesnes).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. Users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., city + streets; protected + wetlands; Medieval + towns). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Built Complexes and Districts hierarchy

Contains terms for coherent groupings of built works and for parts of settlements.

  • Complexes are defined as aggregations of buildings, other structures, and open spaces - often multifunctional and more extensive, and usually shaped over a longer period of time by more participants than single built works.

  • Districts are defined as delineated or perceived components of settlements that are more extensive and less architectonic than built complexes. These areas are likely to be defined by socio-economic characteristics or topographic features, by a sameness of the built works they encompass, or by administratively created boundaries.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Public transit systems (e.g., streetcar systems) are found in the Object Groupings and Systems hierarchy.
  • Types of road (e.g., highways, streets) are found in the open spaces portion of the Open Spaces and Site Elements hierarchy.

  • Constituent parts of roads (e.g., bus lanes, curbs) are found in the Components hierarchy.
  • Organization
    The hierarchy is structured under the two broad descriptors complexes and districts.
  • Terms in the complexes section are classified by function (e.g., power plants, plantations) or by development practice (e.g., mixed-use developments).

  • In the districts section, terms are collocated by the headings <districts by function> (e.g., buffer zones, school districts), <districts by location or context> (e.g., acropolises, inner cities), and districts by condition (e.g., growth centers).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., district + zoning; prefabricated + housing; Shaker + cemeteries; rehabilitated + inner cities). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Single Built Works hierarchy

Contains descriptors for freestanding buildings and other structures commonly considered individual built works or architectural types (e.g., museums, basilicas, palaces). Terms for single built works cover a range from complex buildings to minimal accessory structures. Wherever possible, buildings are distinguished from other structures.

  • Buildings are defined as walled or roofed constructions used or intended for occupancy or shelter (e.g., apartment houses, restaurants), generally more substantial than other structures that provide only some shelter or enclosure (e.g., tents, cow sheds).

  • "Other structures" are considered to be constructions having partial or virtual enclosure or shelter (e.g., cromlechs, arbors) or freestanding constructions providing no enclosure or shelter (e.g., mounds, signal towers). Some structures may be relatively small and exist as accessories to other built works (e.g., fountains, tombs).

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Some terms located in the Single Built Works hierarchy (e.g., schools, libraries (buildings)) can be used to mean the built works, the organizations, or the institutions.
  • Terms for the structural systems and individual building parts (e.g., balloon frames, garage doors) that make up single built works are found in the Components hierarchy.

  • Rooms, spaces, and other large building subdivisions (e.g., kitchens, ells) are also found in the Components hierarchy.
  • Organization
    This hierarchy has two main sections to distinguish between the general types of built works (e.g., buildings and structures (single built works)) and specific types (e.g., cottages, post offices, and temples).
  • The <single built works by specific type> is further subdivided as follows: Under the heading <single built works by form> are collocated records for general morphological types that do not necessarily denote any specific function (e.g., apsidal buildings, skyscrapers). Included under <single built works by function> are descriptors for classes of built works that are denoted by their use (e.g., dwellings, commercial buildings). Under <single built works by location or context> are found descriptors for structures defined by their placement in the landscape in relation to other structured works or in relation to landscape features (e.g., garden structures, outbuildings). A small number of descriptors are found under additional headings classifying single built works by design and by condition.
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., Georgian + saltbox houses; three-story + parking garages; modular + houses; fieldstone + cottages). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Open Spaces and Site Elements hierarchy

Contains terms for open spaces that are relatively coherent areas created and modified by many of the same concepts and processes that shape buildings and other structures (e.g., gardens, plazas), as well as terms for discrete manufactured or manipulated features found in or around open spaces, other cultural landscapes, or natural landscapes (e.g., flagpoles, windbreaks).

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    In the Components hierarchy are found terms for the structural systems and individual building parts (e.g., balloon frames, garage doors) that make up single built works as well as terms for rooms, spaces, and other large building subdivisions (e.g., kitchens), and terms for the infrastructural system components found throughout the landscape (e.g., water mains, overpasses). Terms for the human-produced features of open spaces and cultural landscapes (e.g., lawns, berms) are found here, while terms for types of natural landscape features and their components (e.g., cliffs, rivers) are found in the Settlements and Landscapes hierarchy.

  • Organization
    The hierarchy is composed of two sections: open spaces and <site elements>.
  • The open spaces section collocates descriptors for exterior spaces that are designed as units or designated as units and may contain buildings or other structures (e.g., quadrangles, parks).

  • The <site elements> section contains descriptors for artifacts that occupy fixed positions in the landscape, particularly landscapes around buildings, but are not sufficiently large or complex to be considered buildings (e.g., fences).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may combine descriptors with other terms (e.g., concrete + bollards; carved + boundary stones; Renaissance + gardens). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Furnishings hierarchy

Contains terms for primarily movable articles that provide comfort, convenience, or protection in dwellings, places or business, or other public or private spaces. They may be useful or ornamental and may be used in indoor or outdoor spaces. Trade names and proper names for particular types of furnishing that have come to be used generically or near-generically are included in the hierarchy.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Objects with the primary purpose of storage receptacles or other forms of container (e.g., candle boxes, footlockers) appear in the Containers hierarchy.
  • Permanent installations integrated into the fabric of buildings (e.g., altars, choir screens) appear in the Components hierarchy.

  • Timepieces and meteorological instruments (e.g., tall case clocks, barometers) appear in the Measuring Devices hierarchy.

  • Terms for the shapes of furniture pieces appear in the Attributes and Properties hierarchy (e.g., bombé).

  • Terms for constituent parts of furnishings (e.g., footrests) appear in the Components hierarchy. Also in that hierarchy are descriptors for architectural elements that often appear on furnishings (e.g., arches, pediments).

  • Abstract or stylized motifs and conventionalized patterns (e.g., gadrooning, trefoils), which represent a visual vocabulary used throughout the decorative arts, appear in the Design Elements hierarchy.
  • Organization
    The hierarchy consists of two major categories: <furnishings by form or function> and <furnishings by location or context>.
  • The first category contains six sections: <coverings and hangings> (e.g., throws, rugs); frames (e.g., ogee frames); furniture (e.g., benches, chairs); lighting devices (e.g., candles, chandeliers); mirrors (e.g., hand mirrors, looking glasses); and <soft furnishings> (e.g., bolsters (soft furnishings), pillows).

  • The second section includes centerpieces, houseplants, and paperweights.
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., blockfront + desks; upholstered + chairs; hooked + rugs; Baroque + frames).Descriptors should be For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Costume hierarchy

Contains terms for objects worn or carried for warmth, protection, embellishment, or for symbolic purposes. It includes terms for garments considered as the main item of dress (e.g., shirts, trousers), term for garments worn under the main garments (e.g., undershirts), and terms for garments worn over the main garments (e.g., parkas). Also included are terms for protective wear, including types of armor; vestments and other ceremonial garments; uniforms; and an extensive listing of accessories, including those worn on the body (e.g., headgear, footwear) and those carried on the person (e.g., evening bags, parasols).

  • Regarding other Hierarchies Timepieces (e.g., pocket watches, wrist watches) are in the Measuring Devices hierarchy.
  • Weapons (e.g., pocket pistols, dress swords) are in the Weapons and Ammunition hierarchy.

  • Terms for objects that may be used in the grooming and care of costume or the person (e.g., clothes brushes, nail clippers) appear in the Tools and Equipment hierarchy.

  • Terms for objects used to store or transport costume or other personal effects (e.g., glove boxes, suitcases) are in the containers hierarchy.

  • Constituent parts of costume (e.g., busks, waistbands) appear in the Components hierarchy.
  • Organization
    The Costume hierarchy is organized into three major categories: <costume by form> (e.g., main garments, outerwear), <costume by function> (e.g., habits, uniforms), and <costume accessories> (e.g., evening bags, jewelry).

  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users will use descriptors with other terms (e.g., fur + coats; Greek + jewelry; wedding + veils). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Tools and Equipment hierarchy

Contains terms for equipment used in processing materials and fabricating objects as well as terms associated with activities and disciplines in the construction industry, design professions, the fine and decorative arts, and other aspects of material culture. Excluded are artifacts such as measuring devices and weapons, which may be considered equipment but fall into the scope of other hierarchies in the Furnishings and Equipment section of the Objects facet.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for devices used to measure in terms of standard units or fixed amounts (e.g., gauges) appear in the Measuring Devices hierarchy. Terms for items that are necessary to anchor or join materials, objects, or components (e.g., nails, buckles) appear under fasteners in the Components hierarchy. Constituent parts of equipment (e.g., handles) are also in the Components hierarchy. HVAC systems can be found in the Object Groupings and Systems hierarchy, while the descriptors for HVAC equipment (e.g., air conditioners) are found here.

  • Organization
    The hierarchy is organized into six categories:
  • <equipment by general type> (e.g., machinery, tools) includes the generic forms of equipment without enumerating their types.

  • <equipment by mode of operation> (e.g., hydraulic equipment, power tools) identifies categories of equipment by their source of power

  • <equipment by context> (e.g., cutlery, saddles) groups equipment by its context of use

  • <equipment by process> (e.g., earthmoving equipment, power producing equipment) organizes equipment according to the basic function it performs

  • <equipment by profession or discipline> (e.g., scientific instruments, surveying instruments) collocates descriptors for equipment associated with a particular discipline or profession

  • <equipment by material processed> (e.g., gathering irons, woodworking tools) includes descriptors for equipment used exclusively with certain materials.
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns with the singular form provided as an alternate descriptor when appropriate. End users may use descriptors with other terms (e.g., pen + drawings; cast iron + bench anvils). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Weapons and Ammunition hierarchy

Contains terms for implements and mechanisms designed to be used as a means of physical attack or defense. Included are hand-held weapons such as swords, ground- or carriage-supported weapons such as artillery, components of weapons (e.g., arrowheads), and objects propelled by firearms (e.g., cartridges). Also included are descriptors for hunting weapons (e.g., boar spears) and for objects derived from weapons but used for purely ceremonial purposes (e.g., dress swords).

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for materials that can function as weapons or ammunition themselves are found in the Materials hierarchy (e.g., explosives, propellants).
  • Terms for armor and other forms of protective wear (e.g., shields, flak jackets) are found in the Costume hierarchy.

  • Terms for armored or weapons-carrying vehicles (e.g., warships, tanks (military vehicles)) are found in the Transportation Artifacts hierarchy.

  • Terms for objects used both as weapons and as tools are found in the Tools and Equipment hierarchy (e.g., hammers).

  • Terms for containers for weapons and ammunition (e.g., scabbards, powder flasks) are found with other containers in the Furnishings hierarchy.

  • Terms for firearms used purely for target shooting are found in the Recreational Artifacts hierarchy, while those for firearms used as weapons in combat or hunting are found here.

  • Terms for parts of weapons (e.g., triggers), as well as components belonging to both weapons and tools (e.g., blades), are found in the Components hierarchy.
  • Organization
    The hierarchy is divided into two broad sections, weapons and ammunition.
  • The first section is divided into combination weapons, edged weapons (e.g., bayonets), <explosive weapons> (e.g., bombs), incendiary weapons (e.g., flamethrowers), <percussive weapons> (e.g., quarterstaffs), and <projectile weapons> (e.g., catapults).

  • Terms under ammunition are grouped according to whether they function in artillery (e.g., cannonballs) or small arms (e.g., bullets), or both (e.g., shot).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors. End users use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., Japanese + engraved + steel + swords; security guards' + handguns). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Measuring Devices hierarchy

Contains terms for instruments or containers designed and often calibrated to measure, for example, extent, quantity, capacity, mass, or position in terms of a standard unit or fixed amount. Devices for indicating or recording the data obtained are also enumerated. Included are terms for instruments for observing and measuring light, heat, the basic universal forces, and the weather, as well as timekeeping devices and scales.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Descriptors for the Components of measuring devices (e.g., balance springs, gnomons) are found in the Components hierarchy.
  • Instruments that may be used to measure or record, but whose primary purpose is for drafting (e.g., beam compasses) or for fabricating (e.g., dividing engines) are found in the Tools and Equipment hierarchy.

  • Ungraduated vessels that may hold liquids or solids (e.g., pitchers) and thus be used for comparing amounts, but whose primary purpose is to contain and not to measure, are found in the Containers hierarchy.
  • Organization
    The hierarchy has three main sections.
  • Under <measuring devices by extent> are descriptors for instruments that measure aspects of the dimensions, which include length, distance, area, thickness, quantity, size, and time (e.g., tape measures, mantel clocks, and calibrated containers such as measuring cups).

  • Under <measuring devices for forces> are terms for devices that measure the four elemental forces (electricity, gravity, magnetism, and the nuclear force) and their manifestations, which include movement, pressure, and weight (e.g., ammeters, flowmeters, balances).

  • The <measuring devices for phenomena> section contains descriptors for heat-sensing devices (e.g., thermometers), light-measuring devices (e.g., absorptiometers), meteorological instruments (e.g., barometers), and sound-measuring devices (e.g., audiometers).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors. End users will combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., Renaissance + brass (alloy) + astrolabes). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Containers hierarchy

Contains terms for artifacts used to hold substances or objects. Included are terms for containers intended for culinary use, for horticultural use, for health care, hygiene, and similar personal needs as well as terms for containers associated with liturgical, funerary, and other ceremonial activities. A term for a container is placed either with respect to the item's earliest historical use or where the term has its broadest meaning. Ancient vase shapes, however, have been placed by their classical meaning or context, even though in some instances the descriptor may be applied to preclassical or postclassical vessels.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for devices used to measure in descriptors of standard units or fixed amounts (e.g., measuring spoons) appear in the Measuring Devices hierarchy.
  • Large- and small-scale appliances and similar culinary equipment (e.g., iceboxes, coffee makers) appear in the Tools and Equipment hierarchy.

  • Terms for artifacts that may in some instances be considered types of container (e.g., chests of drawers) but which fall within the scope of other hierarchies, such as Furnishings or Tools and Equipment, are excluded here.
  • Organization
    The hierarchy is organized into three major categories:
  • <containers by form> includes general types of container identified by their physical form (e.g., baskets, vessels).

  • <containers by function or context> identifies exclusive classes of container and enumerates specific types within those classes (e.g., <document containers>, <storage containers>).

  • <containers by location> enumerates containers defined by their placement (e.g., saddle bags, wall pockets).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., enameled + snuff boxes; coiled + pots; creamware + teacups). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Sound Devices hierarchy

Contains descriptors for devices used to produce sound, whether musical or nonmusical. This includes instruments played in musical performance, those sounded in the context of religious or other ceremonial occasions, sound producers that are not primarily musical instruments but serve to signal or communicate, and implements used with instruments to produce sounds.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for sound pitch attributes (e.g., soprano, bass) are found in the Design Attributes hierarchy.
  • Terms for devices that produce sound but which constitute integral building systems (e.g., burglar alarms, intercom systems) are found in the Built Works Components hierarchy.

  • Terms for parts of sound devices (e.g., resonators, mouthpieces) and for implements used to set the sound-producing mechanism of a device into operation (e.g., plectra) are found in the Object Components hierarchy.
  • Organization
    The hierarchy consists of three sections.
  • Most descriptors are found in the first section, <sound devices by acoustical characteristics>. These represent descriptors for devices that may serve musical and other functions, arranged according to physical characteristics of sound production (e.g., aerophones, chordophones, electrophones, idiophones, membranophones).

  • The second section is <sound devices by function>, where are found descriptors for devices serving one particular purpose, such as musical instruments whose exclusive function is music performance or production (e.g., stringed instruments).

  • The third section, <sound modifying devices>, is for devices that substantially alter the quality of sound produced by other means, such as the human voice (e.g., kazoos).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., alto + flutes, American colonial + church + bell). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Recreational Artifacts hierarchy

Contains descriptors for equipment and accessories used in a large array of activities engaged in for personal satisfaction or amusement during leisure time. Included are descriptors for such things as playthings and personal fitness equipment and other devices used as pastimes or during competitive play.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for sets of recreational artifacts (e.g., chess sets) are found in the Object Groupings and Systems hierarchy.
  • Terms for sports and athletic equipment worn on the body (e.g., crash helmets) are found in the Costume hierarchy.

  • Terms for objects used in sports but originally intended or based closely on offensive or defensive weapons (e.g., épées, javelins) are found in the Weapons and Ammunition hierarchy.

  • Terms for objects that can be used in sports or play but are primarily or originally intended to carry people or goods over a distance (e.g., sleds, canoes) are found in the Transportation Vehicles hierarchy.

  • Types of figural representation not intended as toys are found in the Visual Works hierarchy (e.g., kachina dolls).
  • Organization
    The hierarchy has two main sections.
  • Terms under the collocated heading <recreational artifacts for competitive activities> are further organized under <card, table and board game elements> (e.g., gameboards, dice) and <sports and athletic equipment> (e.g., bowling pins).

  • The second broad heading, <recreational artifacts for noncompetitive activities>, brings together six categories: <fitness and exercise equipment> (e.g., staff bars), <noncompetitive play equipment> (e.g., kites), <public entertainment devices> (e.g., pinball machines), puppets, puzzles, and toys (recreational artifacts).
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. Descriptors and alternate descriptors are available for use in combination with others (e.g., tin + toys; round + sandboxes). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Transportation Vehicles hierarchy

Contains terms for individual vehicles designed to carry or convey merchandise, materials, or passengers across a distance, whether on land or water, or through water, air, or space.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for groupings of transportation vehicles (e.g., convoys) or networks of transportation equipment (e.g., bus transit systems) are found in the Object Groupings and Systems hierarchy.
  • Terms that refer to constituent parts of vehicles (e.g., fuselages) are placed in the Components hierarchy.

  • Terms for objects that can be used to carry people or goods but are primarily or originally intended for sports or play (e.g., pedal cars) are found in the Recreational Artifacts hierarchy.

  • Terms for farm or construction equipment, not originally designed to transport, are found in the Tools and Equipment hierarchy (e.g., bulldozers).
  • Organization
    Records are arranged into four sections:
  • <air and space transportation vehicles> collocates records for aerospace vehicles, aircraft (e.g., blimps), and spacecraft (e.g. artificial satellites)

  • amphibious vehicles

  • <land vehicles> groups records by the vehicles' form (e.g., carriages, freight cars) and by their method of propulsion (e.g., horse-drawn vehicles)

  • Watercraft is further subdivided into a general type (e.g., boats, ships) and specific type (e.g., Baltimore clippers)
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may combine descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., oak + carts; yellow + taxicabs). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Visual Works hierarchy

Contains terms for items that were originally created for the purpose of communicating primarily visually and nonverbally, especially those conveying a symbolic or expressive meaning or an aesthetic experience. This includes pictorial and sculptural works, as well as those time-based works, such as performance art, that evolved within and are associated with the visual arts. Some terms in this hierarchy can refer to either an object or an image; for example, in the case of an object that is constructed of canvas, stretchers, and frame specifically to support a painted image, the image and the object both may be called a painting, whereas an image painted on a piece of furniture may be called a painting, but the supporting object is, for example, a chest of drawers or a firescreen.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    In the Information Forms hierarchy are found terms for items that communicate by visual, nonverbal means, but whose purpose is primarily informational (e.g., maps), including certain prints that are associated with the reproduction of documents and technical drawings (e.g., blueprints).
  • Terms for decorative elements may be found in the Design Elements hierarchy (e.g., scrollwork) and the Components hierarchy (e.g., acroteria). Architectural forms that are primarily structural and secondarily sculptural (e.g., caryatids) also appear in Components.

  • Most terms for the materials used in a work are in the Materials hierarchy (e.g., canvas), although if found objects or construction materials are used (e.g., dinner plates, I-beams) these descriptors appear in locations appropriate to the item's original function.

  • Terms for the methods used to create a work (e.g., wet collodion process, carving) are in the Processes and Techniques hierarchy.

  • Regarding general classes of subject matter, other terms appear in various hierarchies, including Events (e.g., war) and Associated Concepts (e.g., mythology).
  • Organization
    Under <visual works by form>, <visual works by function>, and <visual works by location or context> are terms that are not specific to one medium (e.g., panoramas).
  • Terms for works in specific media (e.g., paintings) are found under <visual works by medium or technique>.

  • Under <visual works by subject type> are terms for conventional genres of subject matter, especially those that exist in a variety of media (e.g. portraits).

  • Throughout the hierarchy, the guide term <…by form> is used to collocate terms that refer to works based on their shape or arrangement; <…by function> is used to collocate terms that emphasize how a work was originally used.

  • <…by location or context> collocates terms that indicate where a work is found or used or, if possible, where it was originally designed to be used.

  • <…by material>, <…by medium>, and <…by technique> collocate terms that designate a work by its constituent material or the methods used to create it.

  • <…by subject type> collocates terms that identify general types of works by their subject matter.
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., Byzantine + icons; ink + drawings; garden + sculpture; portrait + photographs). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.

   » Exchange Media hierarchy

Contains terms for objects given a specific value to be used in the exchange of goods and services and in the settlement of debts. This includes items usable in a variety of circumstances, whether in general circulation (e.g., coins) or items with a more restricted use, often designated for the exchange of specific goods and services (e.g., tickets) Most of the terms are coin names.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for sets of exchange media (e.g., plate number blocks) are found in the Object Groupings and Systems hierarchy.
  • Terms that designate the materials used in fabricating exchange media (e.g., cupronickel) are placed in the Materials hierarchy.

  • Terms describing the ways exchange media are manufactured (e.g., minting) are placed in the Processes and Techniques hierarchy.

  • In the Information Forms hierarchy are found terms for the various identifying symbols or abbreviations found on various types of exchange medium (e.g., mintmarks) as well as terms for business and financial records (e.g., stock certificates).
  • Organization
    Most of the descriptors in this hierarchy appear under money, negotiable instruments, stamps (exchange media), and tokens.
  • The coins section of money is divided into <coins by form or technique> (e.g., proof coins), <coins by function> (e.g., Maundy money), and <coins by origin>.

  • <Coins by origin> is subdivided into regional, historical, and cultural categories, such as <Early Western World coins> (e.g., staters), <Later Western World coins> (e.g., shillings), and <Asian coins> (e.g., kobans). (The chronological division between the Early Western World and the Later Western World is the 7th to 8th centuries CE when the Arabs and Franks undertook significant governmental and financial restructuring, including the establishment of new monetary systems.) Some subcategories under <coins by origin> are further arranged into two lists, one containing coins listed by denomination term (e.g., drachmas) and the second containing coins listed by descriptive names generally applied in respect to specific coin issues (e.g., antoniniani). Coin names are not organized by individual countries, since coins with the same name and denomination may be issued by more than one government (e.g., francs) or may persist across more than one historical period (e.g., solidi).

  • Descriptors at the same hierarchical level are listed in alphabetical order unless a numerical order by denomination can be used.

   » Information Forms hierarchy

Contains terms for textual, graphic, and physical items whose primary and original purpose is to record or convey specific information. Not considered to be within the scope of the AAT are the names of individual typefaces, such as Bembo. The titles of particular texts are not included unless they are also established forms of works, such as the Korans or Bibles.

  • Regarding other Hierarchies
    Terms for two- and three-dimensional works created to communicate primarily visually, especially to communicate expressive meaning rather than specific information, appear in the Visual Works hierarchy (e.g., still lifes).
  • Types of print used primarily to reproduce documents and technical drawings (e.g., blueprints) which, though produced by light-sensitive processes are not considered photographs, appear here, while photographs and photomechanical prints are found in Visual Works.

  • Terms for many types of financial documents are found here, while items that specifically are used in the exchange of goods or services or in the settlement of debts are found in the Exchange Media hierarchy. » Organization
    The hierarchy is organized into two major sections, <document genres> and <information artifacts>.

  • Under <document genres> are found terms that identify types of text or other intellectual content regardless of what type of physical artifact contains them. These items may be complete in themselves or parts of larger wholes (e.g., a calendar may exist independently or within an appointment book or elsewhere).

  • <Document genres> itself is organized into three categories. Under <document genres by form> are descriptors that indicate some particular manner in which the content of an informational item has been arranged (e.g., lists). Under <document genres by function> are descriptors that indicate a specific purpose for which the item was created (e.g., instructional materials).

  • Wherever possible, documents serving uniquely as records in a particular type of context or institution are placed in this section in the categories under records rather than by their general form or function. Thus, for example, marriage certificates appears as a narrower record under marriage records rather than under certificates.

  • <Document genres by conditions of production> collocates terms that emphasize the way in which an informational item was formulated, prepared, or produced (e.g., collected works).

  • In the second major section of the hierarchy, <information artifacts> collocates terms for the physical formats and objects through which specific information is recorded or conveyed (e.g., books). The section consists of two categories: <information artifacts by physical form>, collocating descriptors that emphasize the physical nature of the object (e.g., cards), and <information artifacts by function>, collocating descriptors that denote the physical object and emphasize the purpose for which it was created (e.g., posters.)

  • Wherever possible terms that refer to the intellectual content of an item are placed in the <document genres> portion of the hierarchy rather than with the terms concerned with the physical forms of the artifacts. Thus, for example, guidebooks appears under instructional materials rather than under books.
  • Descriptor Form and Use
    Descriptors are plural nouns. Singular forms are provided as alternate descriptors as appropriate. End users may use descriptors and alternate descriptors with other terms (e.g., plastic + relief maps; furniture + pattern books; newspaper + advertisements). For further discussion regarding terms, see 3.3 Terms.
           

3.1.1.6.13

Multiple parents
The AAT is polyhierarchical. Records in the AAT may be linked to multiple broader contexts (i.e., multiple parents). An AAT record should have multiple broader contexts when it logically fits into more than one section of the hierarchies.

  • In consultation with your supervisor, assign multiple parents to records in the AAT as necessary.

      • Example
        [for "aigrettes"]
     

   » Preferred parent

One parent must be flagged as preferred. Make the preferred relationship to the parent that best fits the precedent and logic of the AAT, including precedent described in the section above.

  • Children displaying with a non-preferred parent are flagged with an upper-case N (for non-preferred) in square brackets in the hierarchy display.

      • Example
        [the online display for "chapels," under its non-preferred parent]
     

[from the VCS full record for "chapels," showing its two parents]

 

 

  • Example of using logic and precedent: In the example below, stuccoists is best placed as a narrower term under <people in crafts and trades by material> because that BT most specifically defines the context and quality of the term and this follows the logic of similar terms in the AAT. Stucco is sculpture or decorative elements worked in a particular kind of fine plaster. Its creators are considered as fine craftsmen, often as artists. The term denotes much more than someone who simply coats something with a particular type of plaster. Yet plasterers' scope note does, strictly speaking, cover the meaning of stuccoists, so it becomes the alternate broader term.

      • Examples
      • <people in crafts and trades by material>
        ... stuccoists

      • plasterers
        ... stuccoists [N]
  • Alternate hierarchical relationships may be of the genus/species or the whole/part type.

 

 

 

3.1.1.6.14

 

 

Whole/part relationships
A whole/part relationship may only be an alternate hierarchical relationship, never the preferred hierarchical relationship. An alternate whole/part relationship should be made only when the following conditions apply:

  • When the part is necessary for understanding the whole, or

  • when the whole can only be understood in terms of or is distinguished by virtue of the parts; and
    • when the reference would be useful to potential users; and
    • when the parts are somehow different by their association with the whole or are somehow special by virtue of being part of this particular whole.
    • Example
      stables
      stalls (stable spaces) [N]
  • It is required to flag whole/part relationships. See Historical Flag below.

 

3.1.1.6.15

Historical parents
It is rare that you would need to add historical parents to an AAT record. If you feel it is necessary, consult with your supervisor.

       

3.1.1.6.16

   

Positioning under a Candidate level/Temp. parent

   » Incomplete warrant or unknown scope

If you do not have enough warrant for a term or if you cannot determine the scope or meaning of the term, put the record under a candidate level (temp.parent) pending further research. The examples below have insufficient warrant.

      • Example

 

 

 

   » Using temp.parent only when absolutely necessary

All records placed under a temp.parent are candidates; i.e., they will not be published. Therefore, if your assigned task is to place/move entities in the hierarchy, endeavor to correctly position records in the publishable levels of the hierarchy (instead of under temp.parents), as far as time, priorities, and editorial priorities allow.

   » Spelling temp.parent

Note that the spelling and punctuation of "temp.parent/" MUST be consistent! This phrase is used by VCS and extraction routines to identify candidate records.

   » Candidates loaded under temp.parents

Note that the Loader positions candidate records under temp.parents. Editors then move the records from temp.parents to the correct position in the hierarchy.

  • Caveat: If you create a "temp.parent" that should not be published in the Candidate Report for contributors on the Web (e.g., if the children are intended for testing, deleted records, or otherwise should NOT be visible to contributors) set the Problem flag to Yes.

 

 

 

3.1.1.6.17

   

Order among siblings

   » Alphabetical order vs. forced order

Within a given level (i.e., among siblings), records are usually arranged alphabetically by the descriptor. In some cases, however, the order may be "forced" in order to display records by chronological or another logical order. See Sort Order below.

      • Example
        [example of a forced order under Imperial (Roman) styles and periods are ordered chronologically rather than alphabetically]
      • Top of the AAT hierarchies
        .... Styles and Periods Facet
        ........ Styles and Periods
        ............ <styles and periods by region>
        ................ <Early Western World>
        .................... Mediterranean
        ........................ <ancient Italian styles and periods>
        ............................ <ancient Italian periods>
        ................................ Roman (ancient, style or period)
        .................................... Imperial (Roman)
        ........................................ Early Imperial
        ........................................ Augustan
        ........................................ Julio-Claudian
        ........................................ Flavian
        ........................................ Trajanic
        ........................................ Hadrianic
        ........................................ Antonine
        ........................................ Severan

  • Caveat: Consult with your supervisor before applying a forced order.
   

3.1.1.6.18

   

Views of the hierarchy by language

   » Vernacular view

The AAT currently displays with the preferred American English descriptor. Implementors could display the British English terms (when they differ from American English) if they wished because the British English preferred terms are flagged. In the future, there may be enough descriptors in other languages flagged to allow display by other languages as well.

 

 

   

 

3.1.2

   

Sort Order (required-default)

   

 

3.1.2.1

   

Definition
Number indicating the order in which a subject record will sort among siblings in the hierarchy.

   

3.1.2.2

   

Values
Numbers.

     

3.1.2.3

   

RULES

  • For alphabetic sorting, leave the Sort Order as 1 for all siblings.

  • For forced sorting, move the siblings up and down the list so that they will sort in the correct order. Numbers must be sequential.

 

         

3.1.3

   

Historical Flag: Current or Historical parents and other flags (required-default)

     

3.1.3.1

   

Definition
Flag indicating the historical status of the parent/child relationship, or another characteristic of the relationship.

     

3.1.3.2

   

Values
Hierarchical relationships are usually current or historical (flagged C or H), although others may occasionally apply. In the list below, the three last relationships (Part/Whole, Genus/Species, Generic ) are temporarily being stored here; in the future, they should be placed in a separate field.

    • C - Current, H - Historical, B - Both, N/A - Not Applicable, U ? Undetermined, W - Part/Whole (BTP), S- Genus/Species (BTS), G - Generic (BTG)

      • Example
   

 

3.1.3.3

   

Sources
Values are chosen by the editor from a controlled list.

     

3.1.3.4

   

Discussion
In AAT, this field is used primarily to flag whole/part relationships (most relationships in AAT are genus/species and need not be flagged). It should also be used to flag any rare historical relationships in the AAT.

   

3.1.3.5

   

RULES

  • Choose the flag appropriate to the relationship. The default flag for the relationship is Current. If the relationship is not current, change it to the appropriate flag, which will typically be Historical.

    • Current: For relationships that still exist, even though they may have been established long ago, use Current. Most records in the AAT have the flag set to Current.

    • Historical: For a historical relationship that no longer exists. Consult with your supervisor before using this flag.

    • Both: For a relationship that existed in the past, the relationship was severed, and then established again. Consult with your supervisor before using this flag.

    • N/A: Consult with your supervisor before using this flag.

    • Unknown: This flag is used primarily for data that is loaded into VCS. If you feel that Unknown is appropriate in a given situation, consult with your supervisor; it would be highly unusual for an editor to know enough to make the relationship, but not enough to know if it is current or historical.

    • Part/Whole (BTP): Meaning "Broader Term Partitive" in thesaurus terminology, refers to whole/part relationships.
      • Example
        [for "stables"]
    • Genus/Species (BTI): Meaning "Broader Term Instance" in thesaurus terminology. Given that most hierarchical relationships in the AAT are Genus/Species, this flag is typically not used (i.e., the relationship is assumed to be Genus/Species unless otherwise indicated). Consult with your supervisor before using this flag.

    • Generic (BTG): Meaning "Broader Term Generic" in thesaurus terminology. Consult with your supervisor before using this flag.

 

   

 

3.1.4

   

Dates for relationship to parents

       

3.1.4.1

   

Definition
Dates delimiting the relationship between the child and its parent. There are three fields: Display Date, Start Date, and End Date.

      • Examples
        [example as it appears in VCS, for a Current relationship to its parent, in the record for Early Imperial]
     

[as it appears online; the Start and End Dates are not shown to end users]

   

 

3.1.4.2

Values
Display Date is a free-text field; values may be any ASCII character; no special characters or diacritics are allowed; diacritics must be expressed according to the codes in Appendix A.

  • Start Date and End Date must contain valid years, validated by VCS.
   

 

3.1.4.3

   

Sources
The dates should be determined using the same standard reference works that supply other information in the record.

   

 

3.1.4.4

   

Discussion
The Display Date usually refers to a period or date, however, it may sometimes contain notes that do not explicitly make reference to a date. In such cases, the note should implicitly refer to a date or datable condition or event, because you are required to include a Start Date and End Date with every Display Date.

  • Display dates are indexed with Start Date and End Date. Start and End Dates are controlled by special formatting; dates BCE are represented by negative numbers.
         

3.1.4.5

   

RULES

  • Dates are not required. However, if you enter data in any of the three fields, you must enter data in ALL three of the fields.

  • The dates appear on reciprocal links. That means that the same dates will appear in BOTH records. Write the Display Dates and assign Start and End Dates so that they will be correct and unambiguous in both records. Repeat the names of the places in the Display Date when necessary to avoid ambiguity.

  • A brief set of rules for Dates appears below. See also Appendix B and Dates for Names in Chapter 3.3 Names.
       

3.1.4.5.1

Display Date
A short set of rules appears below. For further discussion of Dates, see Appendix B.

  • Follow the style of existing Display Dates.

      • Examples
      • Display Date: the term "dinos" was formerly used to refer to a cup rather than a bowl
        Start Date: -1000 End Date: 1900

      • Display Date: Heracleopolitan period lasted 2130 to 1970 BCE
        Start Date: -2130 End Date: -1970

  • Do not use an initial capital, unless the word is a proper name.

  • Do not use full sentences; do not end the display date with a period or any other punctuation.

  • Ideally, the display date should refer, explicitly or implicitly, to a time period or date associated with the link between child and parent.

  • If a date is uncertain, use a broad or vague designation (e.g., ancient) or words such as ca. and probably.

  • In some cases, the Display Date may be used to record unusual or important information about the hierarchical relationship (see the example below), not even referring explicitly to a date. However, dates should be implicit in the condition or event mentioned and you should have a period or date in mind, because - if you record a Display Date - Start and End dates are required.
         

3.1.4.5.2

   

Start Date and End Date
Use dates that most broadly delimit the span of time of the relationship referred to in the display date. In many cases, the years will be approximate years. When in doubt, it is better to estimate too broad a span rather than too narrow a span. See the Date Authority in Appendix B for approximate dates of historic events and entities; you should also consult other, related records in AAT to establish dates.

  • Dates must be expressed in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is the Gregorian calendar projected back in time before it came into existence.

  • Express dates BCE by negative numbers, using a hyphen before the number. Do not use commas or any other punctuation.

  • For current relationships, use the End Date 9999.

  • For very ancient dates, expressed as years ago or before present in the Display Date, translate these dates into approximate years in the proleptic Gregorian calendar for the Start and End Dates.

 

         

3.1.5

   

Parent String (required-default)

         

3.1.5.1

   

Definition
A listing of parents, often used in displays enclosed in parentheses following the name of the place.

         

3.1.5.2

   

Values
Preferred name and other names from the parents' records.

         

3.1.5.3

   

Sources
Values are automatically generated by the system.

         

3.1.5.4

   

Discussion
The Parent String is automatically concatenated by VCS or another application by an algorithm. Although the editor does not directly create parent strings, note that the choices you make for the preferred name, preferred English name, and Display Name affect the way in which parent strings are created.

  • The parent string for AAT is generally displayed in natural order rather than inverted order. Given that the strings may be so long, the middle levels are often omitted in horizontal displays; an ellipsis is used to indicate levels are missing (see example below).

  • In VCS, the Parent String is combined with the preferred term of the target AAT record in the Label. For displays to users, the qualifier, if any, must also be included.
  • Examples
    [parent string in natural order for friendly usability]
     

[parent strings with levels omitted, indicated by ellipsis]

         

3.1.5.5

   

RULES

  • The rules for creating the Parent String and Label are applicable to the automated process only. Editors need be concerned only with creating records that will have the correct data required for the algorithm to create parent strings and labels.

 

         

3.1.6

   

Facet or Hierarchy Code

         

3.1.6.1

   

Definition
A special thesaurus code required by some catalogers who use the AAT.

         

3.1.6.2

   

Values
Alpha code with periods.

         

3.1.6.3

   

Sources
System generated.

         

3.1.6.4

   

Discussion
In early releases of the AAT, alpha-numeric codes were used to allow the construction of the hierarchies. Even though these codes are no longer needed for that purpose in current releases, cataloging practice for some institutions still requires the inclusion of the facet and hierarchy codes, which are therefore included for the convenience of these users. In the past, each Classification Notation consisted of three parts, separated by periods: an alpha-character facet code, an alpha-character hierarchy code, and a series of codes for the particular line containing the descriptor. The first two of these codes is retained as the Facet/Hierarchy Code (illustrated below).

  • Given that the AAT changes and grows, and, therefore Classification Notations were regenerated for each new release, this system for building hierarchies was difficult for users to maintain over time; it has been replaced with links between the Subject_ID and Parent_ID, which are unique, consistent numeric codes.
         

3.1.6.5

   

RULES

  • Codes are system-generated, however, a list of codes appears below, for your information.

Codes:

B

ASSOCIATED CONCEPTS FACET

B.BM

 

Associated Concepts

D

PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES FACET

D.DC

 

Attributes and Properties

D.DE

 

Conditions and Effects

D.DG

 

Design Elements

D.DL

 

Color

F

STYLES AND PERIODS FACET

F.FL

 

Styles and Periods

H

AGENTS FACET

H.HG

 

People

H.HL

 

Living Organisms

H.HN

 

Organizations

K

ACTIVITIES FACET

K.KD

 

Disciplines

K.KG

 

Functions

K.KM

 

Events

K.KQ

 

Physical and Mental Activities

K.KT

 

Processes and Techniques

M

MATERIALS FACET

M.MT

 

Materials

V

OBJECTS FACET

V.PC

 

Object Groupings and Systems

V.PE

 

Object Genres

V.PJ

 

Components

 

Built Environment

V.RD

 

Settlements and Landscapes

V.RG

 

Built Complexes and Districts

V.RK

 

Single Built Works

V.RM

 

Open Spaces and Site Elements

 

Furnishings and Equipment

V.TC

 

Furnishings

V.TE

 

Costume

V.TH

 

Tools and Equipment

V.TK

 

Weapons and Ammunition

V.TN

 

Measuring Devices

V.TQ

 

Containers

V.TT

 

Sound Devices

V.TV

 

Recreational Artifacts

V.TX

 

Transportation Vehicles

 

Visual and Verbal Communication

V.VC

 

Visual Works

V.VK

 

Exchange Media

V.VW

 

Information Forms

       

3.1.7

   

Relationship Type for Hierarchy

       

3.1.7.1

   

Definition
Indicates the type of relationship between a hierarchical child and its parent, expressed in the jargon of controlled vocabulary standards. An example of a whole/part relationship is Tuscany is a part of Italy (TGN). An example of genus/species relationship is calcite is a type of mineral (AAT). An example of the instance relationship is Rembrandt van Rijn is an example of a Person (ULAN).

       

3.1.7.2

   

Values
G=Genus/Species (generic), P=Whole/Part (partitive), I=Instance

       

3.1.7.3

   

Sources
Automatically generated by the system; edited by Vocabulary editor if necessary.

       

3.1.7.4

   

Discussion

 

   
  • Values were automatically supplied when the data was updated in the 5.0 deployment. Some values thus generated are undoubtedly inaccurate, and will be corrected over time.

  • Genus/Species relationships: The genus/species or generic relationship is the most common relationship in the AAT, and in other many other thesauri and taxonomies, is the Genus/Species relationships.  All children in a genus/species relationship should be a kind of, type of, or manifestation of the parent (compare instance relationships below). The placement of a child may be tested by the all/some argument. In the example of bronze below, all architectural bronze is bronze, but only some bronze is architectural bronze.

  • Whole/part relationships: Also called a partitive relationship. A whole/part relationship is a hierarchical relationship between a larger entity and a part or component. In the context of cataloging art, it typically refers to a relationship between two work recordsor two records in a thesaurus (for example, Florence is part of Tuscany).

    Whole/part relationships are typically applied to geographic locations, parts of corporate bodies, parts of the body, and other types of concepts that are not readily placed into genus/species relationships. Each child should be a part of the parent and all the other ancestors above it. In the AAT they may occasionally exist between a component and its whole. If you wish to designate a whole/part relationship in the AAT, consult with your supervisor. See 3.1.1.6.14 Whole/part relationships above.

  • Instance relationships: In addition to the whole/part and genus/species relationships, some vocabularies may utilize a third type of hierarchical relationship, the instance relationship. This is most commonly seen in vocabularies where proper names are organized by general categories of things or events, for example, if the proper names of mountains and rivers were organized under the general categories mountains and rivers in a geographic database (TGN does not organize places in this way). The instance relationship may be utilized in the facets of the ULAN. If you wish to utilize it in the AAT, consult with your supervisor.

       

3.1.7.5

   

RULES

  • Values were automatically supplied when the data was updated in the 5.0 deployment. Some values thus generated are undoubtedly inaccurate, and will be corrected over time.

       

 

       
     

[1]Required-default" indicates that a default is automatically set, but should be changed by the cataloguer as necessary.

       

Last updated 25 January 2010
Document is subject to frequent revisions

 




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